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Peter Newman

Understanding how cities are shaped by transport priorities through urban fabric theory creates a new and more sustainable approach to the planning and assessment process in transport and town planning. Four tools are developed in this chapter from the theory: (1) a strategic framework that includes the kind of urban fabric within which any project is located; (2) benefit-cost ratios that incorporate wider economic benefits, especially agglomeration economies in each fabric; (3) avoidable costs which assess lost opportunities from the kind of urban development facilitated by the infrastructure chosen; and (4) value capture and value creation opportunities that can help finance the infrastructure if they are used to create walking and transit urban fabric.

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Table of legislation

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

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Table of cases

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

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Bridget M. Hutter

This chapter outlines some of the most prominent environmental issues we face, including changes in our understandings of environmental risks, uncertainties and damage and the inequalities attaching to them. It discusses strategies for managing these risks, focusing in particular on risk and resilience perspectives and the ways in which they relate to environmental law. The chapter introduces the organisation of the book around major themes such as variable perspectives on risk regulation; the compatibility of law with notions of risk and resilience; transnational efforts to manage environmental risks; and the difficulties associated with managing inequalities within and between countries. It concludes with an introduction to some of the emerging governance issues generated by these debates.

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References

Prices, Production and Consumption

Basil Oberholzer

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Edited by Bridget M. Hutter

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Introduction

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

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Introduction

Prices, Production and Consumption

Basil Oberholzer

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Foreword

Bulk Fresh Water, Irrigation Subsidies and Virtual Water

Fitzgerald Temmerman

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The crude oil market and its driving forces

Prices, Production and Consumption

Basil Oberholzer

This chapter is an introduction to the most important topics regarding the crude oil market. Several data and facts of the market are briefly presented. An outstanding feature of crude oil at the core of public debates is its character as a fossil and non-renewable fuel. The chapter enlightens what this means in economic terms and how it is connected to the investigation at hand. As another issue, recent research on the oil market has, to a great part, focused on the driving forces of the oil price. In particular, our interest is in the question of whether economic fundamentals are the only factors influencing the price or whether speculation may also be effective. Finally, the role of OPEC and its potential power to impact on the oil market is considered.