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Measuring Innovation Everywhere

The Challenge of Better Policy, Learning, Evaluation and Monitoring

Fred Gault

This book is about measuring innovation, not just in the business sector but in every sector of the economy, using, for the first time, an internationally agreed general definition of innovation. The resulting indicators can be used to inform policy development, and offer a better understanding of the impact of the innovation policy of governments, the strategy of businesses and the practice of households, in a more digital economy. Innovation is a systems phenomenon and systems provide a structure throughout the book.
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Fred Gault

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Fred Gault

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Rafael Ziegler

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Rafael Ziegler

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Fariborz Damanpour

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Fariborz Damanpour

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Catherine Drummond and Patrick Simon Perillo

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Pierre-Marie Dupuy

Twenty years have passed since the author's delivery in 2000 of the general course of public international law at the Hague Academy of International Law, titled ‘The Unity of the International Legal Order’. That course was designed to combat the all-too-common idea that international law was in the process of ‘fragmentation’. It did so by developing a theory focused on the existence of and tension between two forms of unity in the international legal order: the formal unity (concerning the procedures by which primary norms are created and interpreted, and their non-compliance adjudicated) and the material unity (based on the content of certain norms of general international law, peremptory norms). Twenty years later, the time is ripe to revisit this theory to determine the extent to which it is still valid as a framework for the analysis of international law, particularly as an increasing number of ‘populist’ leaders very much seem to ignore, or voluntarily deny, the validity of some of the key substantial principles on which the international legal order was re-founded within and around the United Nations in 1945. When confronted with the factual reality of the present state of international relations as well as with the evolution of the law, one can conclude that the validity of the unity of the international legal order is unfailingly maintained, and that its role in upholding the international rule of law is more important now than ever.

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Trish Greenhalgh