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Gustavo Ghidini and Giovanni Cavani
The aim of this paper is to define the scope of protection afforded to ‘marks with reputation’ under EU Directives and Regulations. The authors argue that the protection granted to said marks also in relation to ‘not similar’ goods requires that, having regard to all the circumstances of the specific case, the consumer could be induced to reasonably suppose that the trade mark owner is somehow (industrially or commercially) connected with the circulation of products bearing an identical or confusingly similar sign. If this possibility cannot be assessed, it should be denied that the use of that sign either brings an unfair advantage to the third party user, or is detrimental to the distinctive character or the repute of the renowned trade mark. In sum, the thesis here submitted states that the protection afforded to renowned trade marks, even ‘extra moenia’ (ie beyond the risk of confusion in a strict sense between the products), anyway presupposes that a misleading message is conveyed to the consumer, inducing her/him to ‘transfer’ the reputation of the latter's products to those of the third party user's products, with the effect of altering the consumer's purchasing choices.
Edited by Johanna Gibson
Christophe Geiger, Craig Allen Nard and Xavier Seuba
Christophe Geiger and Elena Izyumenko
The present chapter provides the first comprehensive overview of the European Court of Human Rights’ case law on IP for the period since the Court’s inception until today. It results from an analysis of more than 90 such cases, many of which have never been discussed before in the literature. This comprehensive overview shows the emergence in Europe of a human rights framework for the intellectual property system, which – in combination with the increasing use of fundamental rights by national courts to solve private-party disputes – is gaining in coherence and relevance when framing the conception and use of IP law.
Edited by Enrico Bonadio and Nicola Lucchi
Yves Botteman and Daniel Barrio Barrio
An area of uncertainty, and with differences of approach between competition authorities, is whether brand owners can prevent distributors from reselling their products via online marketplaces such as Amazon. This article considers the European Court of Justice's judgment in Coty and its implications for distribution arrangements, as regards both the application of Article 101 TFEU and the Vertical Restraints Block Exemption Regulation to selective distribution arrangements and restrictions on internet sales via third-party platforms. It also considers the European Commission's response to the Coty judgment (including its application to non-luxury goods) and the approach taken by national courts and competition authorities.
Charlotte Waelde, Catherine Cummings, Mathilde Pavis and Helena Enright
Jessica C Lai
This article analyses and compares the two main approaches that deal with the relationship between patent exclusive rights and the artefacts embodying patented inventions (usually chattel). Namely, it examines the implied licence approach and the exhaustion approach, at the national and international level, and extrapolates the scope of patent exclusive rights under these two models. The article uses the international dimension to highlight that having two approaches complicates international trade and that this is exacerbated by the nature of the exclusive rights themselves. Highlighting the fact that several exclusive rights only exist upon embodiment, do not marry up to the invention as claimed, and are – for all intents and purposes – served by rights in choses in possession, the article argues that several patent exclusive rights have no practical purpose. The article suggests a simplified approach to patent exclusive rights and thereby the relationship between patented inventions and their physical embodiments.