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Marietta E.A. Haffner
In many Western European countries including the Netherlands and France, the market share of private renting decreased massively after World War II. Often strict rent control is deemed to also be responsible for this development. Yet more recent development indicates a further decline of the sector in the Netherlands, whereas its market share stabilized in France. This chapter explains the development of the private rental sector resulting from private individual or person landlords leaving the sector in the Netherlands, but staying in operation as landlords in France. While in France the institutional landlords/investors retreated, in the Netherlands they kept up their rental stock until the subsidization of new investment became less attractive and in the end was abolished. How ‘rent tenure’-neutral subsidization seems to have played a role, is the central focus of this chapter.
This introductory chapter examines the meaning of the term ‘European Union tort law’ and distinguishes it from studies examining the more loosely defined ‘European tort law’. European Union tort law is found in a number of different areas of law ranging from product liability to competition law. It plays an important role in ensuring the effectiveness of EU law and that EU citizens are able to obtain compensation for their losses resulting from breach of EU law. Owing to its diverse and piecemeal nature, its true breadth is often overlooked. Chapter 1 also highlights the cultural tensions underlying the development of EU tort law and the role harmonisation proposals play in this context.