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Table of legislation

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

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Table of cases

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

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References

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

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Preface

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

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Preface

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

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Antonios E. Platsas

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Introduction

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

From the outset, international negotiations on climate change have faced strong demands for international and global justice. Despite the integration of several justice criteria into the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, climate justice issues have remained difficult to resolve, resulting in persistent disagreements that have proven to be additional obstacles on the road to an international agreement. Hence international action to address the threat of global climate change has progressed far too slowly to enable humankind to achieve the goal of avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. This first chapter introduces the purpose of this book: to present and critically assess the dual landscape of discourses on global climate justice in relation to issues of international coordination and cooperation. Who should be held responsible for what? The first discourse comes from the actors involved in the negotiations, while the second comes from the investment of academic scholars in applied ethics, political philosophy and economics. This book restores the debates and arguments and reveals why several key concepts and proposals presented in these two discourses are ill-founded, contradictory or inappropriate to the specific situation of international coordination aimed at decarbonizing the world economy. It also offers another perspective on the same questions, that of the French school of justification. The latter emphasizes the dependence of relevant norms of justice on qualification of situations and the importance of the choice of coordination instruments for the configuration of justice issues. The case of a world carbon market brings an interesting example. On this basis, suggestions are made about the main directions to follow in terms of justification orders.

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Antonios E. Platsas

Chapter 1: background information and the parameters of the book’s proposed analysis are offered in this chapter. In particular, the chapter defines relevant concepts, proceeds with the analytical strategic parameters for the models and factors, which are to follow, and attempts to familiarise the reader with the book’s overall subject matter.

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Stefano Bianchini

This chapter describes the crisis that affected, in different ways, the Russian, the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian Empires at the dawn of the twentieth century, by focusing on the demands for autonomy that characterized the different national groups. Particular importance is ascribed to the multiple dynamics that affected the Baltic and Ukrainian regions within the Tsarist Empire, the role of the small independent states of the Balkans in imposing the Ottoman partition in South East Europe, as well as the strategic inspiration they drew from the Italian and German experience and, finally, the debates on national and institutional reforms within the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the assassination in Sarajevo.

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Stefano Bianchini

The chapter offers to the reader an insightful description of opposing, sometimes overlapping, nationalist projects in Europe. Beginning from the Enlightenment, the narrative focuses first on the main makers of nationalism (ideas of freedom, group homogeneity, collective culture and standardized language, centralization). It then describes some of the most relevant personalities that influenced the debate and the praxis of national and federal strategies around Europe. A special emphasis is given to the effects that Italian and German unifications had on revolutionary aspirations of nationalist movements. Finally the chapter presents the dynamics that led to the transformation of these ideals from political opposition to state ideology and imperialism. Within this framework, the Polish-Lithuanian and the Serbo-Croatian expectations for federal or ethno-national arrangements are analysed as key examples of multiple, opposing, national projects.