Peter A.G. van Bergeijk and Selwyn Moons discuss the emergence of the concept of economic diplomacy in the fields of Accounting, Business Economics, Conflict Studies, Development Studies, International Economics, International Relations, International Trade, Management Science, Peace Science, Political Science and Public Finance. The focus should be on bilateral activities such as nation branding, trade missions, trade fairs and network activities of embassies and consulates and the impact of these tools on import, export and Foreign Direct Investment. The field should extend beyond the traditional boundaries of commercial diplomacy and business diplomacy and also cover the not-for-profit-sector, including universities and other knowledge institutes, the health sector, the cultural sector, NGO’s etc. One key finding for research is the need to consider significant heterogeneities with respect to (the efficacy of) instruments, countries, institutions levels of development and behavior and decision-making of firms.
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Peter A.G van Bergeijk and Selwyn J.V. Moons
Jens Bartelson, Martin Hall and Jan Teorell
This introduction outlines the main problem areas addressed by this volume. In academic international relations, comparative politics and historical sociology, the study of state making has traditionally been focused on the emergence of states in early modern Europe. The introduction makes the case for a de-centering of the study of state making, by shifting its focus to other historical and geographical contexts. It also elaborates on the preconditions for such de-centering, by discussing how the anachronism and Eurocentrism widespread within this field are best overcome. The authors conclude that this is best accomplished by aligning the concerns of comparative politics and international relations more closely, by moving beyond the tendency to accord primacy to warfare when explaining the making of states, and, finally, by overcoming the divide between materialistic and ideational approaches to state making. This is followed by a brief overview and discussion of individual contributions.
War is a perennial feature in the lives of peoples; peace, by contrast, is an ideal. This chapter explores a number of the general features of the international law relating to war and peace, looking at, for example, the ‘juridicalisation’ of international law, the influence of political regimes, the questions raised by the use of force, and ‘psychological unilateralism’.
Culture is not an essence, it is produced and not only reproduced, it combines tradition and innovation. Cultural security means for some people the possibility to reproduce their culture, for others to produce new cultural forms. This means that some social conditions are fulfilled, and this is connected with the issue of human rights. The framework for these issues is global, and not only national, including the relationship between violence, war and security. The chapter provides some concrete analysis, and not only theoretical perspectives, taking the recent French experience as an example, and dealing with such issues as terrorism, Islam and migration.