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Stefano Bianchini

This chapter describes the crisis that affected, in different ways, the Russian, the Ottoman and the Austro-Hungarian Empires at the dawn of the twentieth century, by focusing on the demands for autonomy that characterized the different national groups. Particular importance is ascribed to the multiple dynamics that affected the Baltic and Ukrainian regions within the Tsarist Empire, the role of the small independent states of the Balkans in imposing the Ottoman partition in South East Europe, as well as the strategic inspiration they drew from the Italian and German experience and, finally, the debates on national and institutional reforms within the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the assassination in Sarajevo.

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Stefano Bianchini

The chapter offers to the reader an insightful description of opposing, sometimes overlapping, nationalist projects in Europe. Beginning from the Enlightenment, the narrative focuses first on the main makers of nationalism (ideas of freedom, group homogeneity, collective culture and standardized language, centralization). It then describes some of the most relevant personalities that influenced the debate and the praxis of national and federal strategies around Europe. A special emphasis is given to the effects that Italian and German unifications had on revolutionary aspirations of nationalist movements. Finally the chapter presents the dynamics that led to the transformation of these ideals from political opposition to state ideology and imperialism. Within this framework, the Polish-Lithuanian and the Serbo-Croatian expectations for federal or ethno-national arrangements are analysed as key examples of multiple, opposing, national projects.

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Theoretical background

Challenges and Perspectives

Vassilis Pergantis

Chapter 1 presents the theoretical premises upon which the book is based. It invokes and exploits critical theory by focusing on the binary constructions permeating the law of treaties discourse, such as the tension between individualism and collective interest, the juxtapositions between esoteric and manifested intent and the oscillation between the negotium and the instrumentum. The delineation of the theoretical framework and the discursive techniques employed allows the showcasing of both the binary and transformational characters of those tensions, as well as how they shape the discussion on challenges to the treaty concept and the paradigm of state consent in the cases discussed further down in the book. Keywords: individualism; communitarianism; formalism; negotium; instrumentum; State consent; critical approach

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Introduction: Asia-Pacific resource politics between boom and crisis

The Political Economy of Conflict and Cooperation

Jeffrey D. Wilson

What explains the emergence of international resource conflicts in the Asia-Pacific during the last decade? This chapter first introduces the empirical scope of this book – providing a broad overview of the global resource boom of the 2000s, the resource security challenges it has posed, and emerging patterns of inter-governmental conflict these have engendered. It then reviews existing theoretical approaches to international resource politics, outlining how these fail to move beyond the systemic level to probe the wider range of factors at both the international and domestic levels driving government’s policy behaviour. It argues that to adequately explain these dynamics, it is necessary to examine why resource interdependence has become a securitised policy domain, and the political-economic factors driving this shift.

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Introduction

The Rest Beyond the West

Vladimir Popov

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Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram

The chapter reviews catch-up or converging growth in parts of the Global South. By 1950, US per capita national income, adjusted for purchasing power, was nearly five times the world average. Since then, Western Europe and Japan have closed their per capita income gaps with the USA. East Asia, South Asia and some other developing countries have also started to close gaps with the West in recent decades. Thus, after two centuries of growing economic divergence, the world has witnessed an era of uneven convergence between parts of the South and the North. Alternative scenarios and some future implications are considered.

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Acknowledgments

The Rest Beyond the West

Edited by Vladimir Popov and Piotr Dutkiewicz

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Introduction

Australia and the OECD

Aynsley Kellow and Peter Carroll

The broad aim of the first chapter is to provide an overview of the OECD in the world of international organisations as it adapts to the frequent change that characterises international relations and global policy regimes. It describes the several and sometimes conflicting, Australian views of the organisation, emphasising its varying value in differing policy areas. The next section of the chapter provides a broad description of the organisation’s aims, organisational structure and key decision processes for the reader with little or no prior knowledge of the organisation. The final section indicates the content of each of the chapters in the book. Key words: role; adaptation; perceptions; organisational structure

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Robert Kolb

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Andrew T. H. Tan

How to understand and explain the evolutions as well as predict the future directions of bilateral relations between the United States and China has become an imperative task for both policy-makers and academic scholars. Borrowing insights from three mainstream international relations (IR) theories, realism, liberalism and constructivism, this chapter suggests a three-stage, perceptual model of ‘threat–interest’ to explore the dynamics of Sino–US relations from 1949 to 2015. It argues that the nature of US–China relations, either cooperation or competition, is mainly shaped by the perceptions of leaders regarding security threats and economic interests between the two nations. How to manage their perceptions regarding each other and how to find a balance between cooperation and competition are the key issues for leaders in both the United States and China to manage their bilateral relations in the future. The next decade or two may be the best or worst times for US–China relations.