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Paul Oslington, Paul S. Williams and Mary Hirschfeld
Beyond Accession in Central and Eastern Europe
Agnes Batory, Andrew Cartwright and Diane Stone
In this introductory chapter to the volume, the authors examine on the one hand the concepts of policy transfer and policy diffusion and, on the other, the concept of policy failure and success within the general context of Europeanization in Central and Eastern Europe. They invite contributors to address two main sets of questions: To what degree was the policy/institution/idea under consideration transferred intact or modified? And did the resulting policy or institution come to be viewed as a success or failure, or somewhere in between? The chapters that follow highlight that policy ‘transfer’ processes are often non-linear and fuzzy and sometimes counter-intuitive, and point to the central importance of the views, interests and constellations of the domestic actors that filter and interpret international influences. In this sense, the CEE experience in the years since accession is as much about active and sometimes strategic policy imports and policy distortion and perhaps less about simple receipt and incorporation of external models.
The Social Challenge Ahead
Edited by Ulf Bernitz, Moa Mårtensson, Lars Oxelheim and Thomas Persson
We introduce our topic and provide an overview of the book. We posit a clear bias in U.S. immigration policy that favored entry from Europe and, notably, from Northern and Western European countries until the enactment of the Hart-Celler Act in 1968 (i.e., the Immigration Act of 1965). Only in recent decades have there been a significant increase in the number of annual immigrant arrivals and a considerable shift in the source countries and regions of immigrant arrivals to the U.S. towards Asia, Latin American and the Caribbean, and, to a lesser extent, Africa. We contend that many recent immigrant arrivals to the U.S. have entered a country that is quite culturally dissimilar from their countries of origin. However, through acculturation there has been a movement of U.S. culture away from that of the more traditional European immigrant source countries and towards the cultures of the more recent arrivals’ home countries.
Gary Jacobsohn and Miguel Schor
Juanita Elias and Adrienne Roberts
Assessing Behavioural Public Policy
Behavioural public policies or nudges have become ever more popular in recent years, with governments and other public agencies increasingly keen to use light-touch interventions to improve public policies. Nudge units and their equivalents have been established across the world, and bureaucrats often use experiments to test out behavioural interventions. By asking how far to nudge, the book is a review of how behavioural economists, think tank advocates and policy-makers have used nudges, providing many examples of good practice. Some common criticisms of nudge are also reviewed, as is the ethical debate about the loss of individual autonomy. The core claim of the book is that policy-makers could go further than they do currently by adopting a more radical version of the research and policy agenda. By incorporating more conscious thought into behavioural public policies, what is called ‘nudge plus’, while at the same time encouraging a bottom-up and decentralised approach to formulating and authorising nudges, policy-makers can design policies that give more agency to citizens.
Migration has been intensifying and diversifying since the 1990s. According to the United Nations International Migration Report, there were 244 million international migrants in 2015 – 10 per cent more than only five years earlier, in 2010 (international migrants are here defined as people living in a given country who are either foreign born or have foreign citizenship). Of these, more than two-thirds (71 per cent) lived in high-income countries, while the developing regions hosted 29 per cent of the world’s total international migrant population. Socio-economic transformations such as those induced and intensified by globalisation processes are usually drivers of increased international migration. They intensify grievances and opportunities that lead people to seek better living and working opportunities in distant lands while also facilitating transport and communication. This Handbook focuses on the dynamics that link migration and globalisation processes from economic, social, political and cultural perspectives, looking at the challenges that emerge for labour markets, welfare systems, families and cultures, and institutions and governance arrangements as well as norms. This introduction discusses in detail, and with reference to the relevant literature, the interconnection between migration and globalisation, and presents the structure of the Handbook.