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A legacy of discrimination

Becoming America

Roger White

We introduce our topic and provide an overview of the book. We posit a clear bias in U.S. immigration policy that favored entry from Europe and, notably, from Northern and Western European countries until the enactment of the Hart-Celler Act in 1968 (i.e., the Immigration Act of 1965). Only in recent decades have there been a significant increase in the number of annual immigrant arrivals and a considerable shift in the source countries and regions of immigrant arrivals to the U.S. towards Asia, Latin American and the Caribbean, and, to a lesser extent, Africa. We contend that many recent immigrant arrivals to the U.S. have entered a country that is quite culturally dissimilar from their countries of origin. However, through acculturation there has been a movement of U.S. culture away from that of the more traditional European immigrant source countries and towards the cultures of the more recent arrivals’ home countries.

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Charlie Karlsson, Andreas P. Cornett and Tina Wallin

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Anna Triandafyllidou

Migration has been intensifying and diversifying since the 1990s. According to the United Nations International Migration Report, there were 244 million international migrants in 2015 – 10 per cent more than only five years earlier, in 2010 (international migrants are here defined as people living in a given country who are either foreign born or have foreign citizenship). Of these, more than two-thirds (71 per cent) lived in high-income countries, while the developing regions hosted 29 per cent of the world’s total international migrant population. Socio-economic transformations such as those induced and intensified by globalisation processes are usually drivers of increased international migration. They intensify grievances and opportunities that lead people to seek better living and working opportunities in distant lands while also facilitating transport and communication. This Handbook focuses on the dynamics that link migration and globalisation processes from economic, social, political and cultural perspectives, looking at the challenges that emerge for labour markets, welfare systems, families and cultures, and institutions and governance arrangements as well as norms. This introduction discusses in detail, and with reference to the relevant literature, the interconnection between migration and globalisation, and presents the structure of the Handbook.

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VISUAL METHODOLOGIES

Theory and Applications

Professor Alexandros Paraskevas

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Reviewers

Theory and Applications

Edited by Eve Mitleton-Kelly, Alexandros Paraskevas and Christopher Day

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MULTI-LEVEL NETWORKS

Theory and Applications

Professor Patrick Beautement

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Professor Bill McKelvey

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MIXED METHODS AND COMPLEX ANALOGIES

Theory and Applications

Associate Professor Benyamin Lichtenstein

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Professor Yaneer Bar-Yam

The structure of scientific inquiry is being transformed by broad relevance of the strategies and methods of complex systems science for understanding physical, biological and social systems. Disciplinary and cross-disciplinary interactions are giving way to trans-disciplinary and unified efforts to address the relevance of large amounts of information to description, understanding and control of complex systems. From the study of biomolecular interactions to the workings of the mind to global socio-economic risks, pandemics and environmental disasters, complexity has arisen as a unifying feature of challenges to understanding and action. In this arena, information, structure, function and action are entangled. New approaches that recognize the importance of collective patterns of behaviour, the multi-scale space of possibilities, and evolutionary or adaptive processes that select systems or behaviours that can be effective are central to advancing our understanding and capabilities.