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David B. Audretsch, Erik E. Lehmann and Albert N. Link

Within the span of a generation, innovation and entrepreneurship have emerged as two of the most vital forces in the economy and, even more broadly, in society (Link, 2017). It was not always that way. During the second industrial paradigm, or the era of mass production, particularly following World War II, innovation was barely on the radar screen of economics, management, and other social sciences. Rather, what mattered for economic performance was articulated concisely by the management scholar, Alfred Chandler (1990), in the title of his seminal analysis of firm competitiveness and productivity – Scale and Scope. Economic success lies in largescale production, which enabled companies to attain the highest levels of efficiency and productivity while reducing average cost to a minimum. The primacy of physical capital as the driving force underlying economic performance was mirrored at the macroeconomic level through the Solow (1956) model. Economic policy reflected the capital-driven economy with its focus on instruments to stimulate investment in physical capital. Innovation played at best a marginal role, which was considerably more than could be said for entrepreneurship. In an economy where scale and scope dictated competitiveness and efficiency, new and small firms were typically viewed as a burden on the economy, and they were characterized as constituting “sub optimal capacity,” meaning that they lacked sufficient scale to be efficient.

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Ove Granstrand

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Edited by Ada Scupola and Lars Fuglsang

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Richard Hawkins and Knut Blind

This introduction explores the conceptual background and definitions that pertain to understanding standards and standardization in the context of innovation. A general overview is provided of the themes explored in the chapters that follow.

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Flemming Sørensen and Francesco Lapenta

This introductory chapter of the service innovation research methods book introduces the aim and purpose of the book. It describes the theoretical framework that underpins the book and its individual chapters. The framework includes considerations about a) the theoretical and methodological dimensions of service innovation, b) contemporary trends in service innovation and research, and c) society’s expectations of service innovation research. Additionally, the chapter introduces the content of the individual chapters and thus provides an overview of the contents of the book.

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Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

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Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

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The Rt Hon. Lord Willetts

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Jakob Edler, Abdullah Gök, Paul Cunningham and Philip Shapira

This chapter introduces the reader to the wealth of evidence in this Handbook, and provides guidance for the interpretation of its findings. It first presents the basic definitions and delineations of innovation policy and discusses innovation policy rationales and their limitations. The chapter then reflects on the different understandings of policy instruments and on the nature of policy impact, highlighting the benefits, value and limits of impact analysis. Against this background, a typology of innovation policy instruments is presented which has been developed for this Handbook to systematise the evidence and which allows distinct entry points for readers interested in different kinds of instruments. After providing an explanation of the methodology applied throughout the Handbook, the chapter closes with reflections on how to interpret the findings of the book.

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Steven DeMello and Peder Inge Furseth