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Marina van Geenhuizen, J. Adam Holbrook and Mozhdeh Taheri

This chapter presents the theme, theoretical approaches and overview of the chapters in the book. The theme is the contribution of cities (their actors) to increased sustainability in social-technical systems, eventually by accelerating sustainability improvements. The selected systems are energy, transport and healthcare. Cities may act as the cradle of key inventions, as places of up-scaling and commercialization and as places of quick adoption, though few individual cities take up all these roles. Next, several urban innovation theories are introduced, including agglomeration and cluster theories, and the relational (collaboration) approach, with the aim to ‘position’ the chapters. Specific attention is given to the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Complementary approaches are institutional and governance perspectives, in particular with respect to cities acting as institutional innovators. A final approach is the evolutionary approach, as invention, up-scaling, commercialization and adoption of new technology are concerned with long time-lines and manifold uncertainties.

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Defining eco-innovations: characteristics, typologies and socioeconomic approaches

The Financial Constraints of Eco-Innovation Companies

Edgardo Sica

‘Eco-Innovations’ (EIs) are a type of innovations that may contribute to reduce the environmental burden and to deal with specific problematic areas, such as greenhouse effects, loss of biodiversity, sustainable use of natural resources and so on. However, despite their relevance, EIs still represent a vague and unclear concept. The present chapter firstly clarifies the true meaning of EIs, by defining their characteristics and typologies. Then, it explores and contextualises roles and functions of EIs for sustainability in the framework of two contrasting approaches, namely the more traditional neoclassical literature on innovations and the new evolutionary studies on the techno-paradigm shifts.

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Peter W.B. Phillips, David Castle and Stuart J. Smyth

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Edited by Valentina Bosetti and Michela Catenacci

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Michela Catenacci, Valentina Bosetti, Giulia Fiorese and Elena Veredolini

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Edited by Valentina Bosetti and Michela Catenacci

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Valentina Bosetti, Michela Catenacci, Giulia Fiorese, Elena Verdolini and Laura Aleluia

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Valentina Bosetti, Carlo Carraro, Emanuele Massetti and Massimo Tavoni

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Victor Galaz

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Victor Galaz