Browse by title

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 55 items :

  • Politics and Public Policy x
  • Asian Development x
  • All accessible content x
Clear All
This content is available to you

Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

Over the last half century, Korea successfully escaped from poverty and socio-economic instability to achieve remarkable economic growth and democracy. An average Korean lived on 2.3 dollars per day in the 1950s; she now earns about 60 dollars per day. Since 1960, the Korean economy has maintained a 6 percent annual growth rate of real GDP per capita, becoming the 13th largest economy in the world (Maddison Project, 2013). This achievement is regarded as a historic case of sustainable growth. While several factors contributed to this outstanding growth, there is emerging consensus that Korea’s achievement of both sustained economic development and democracy is mainly due to its investment in people. At its initial stage of development, Korea faced problems similar to most other developing countries. To escape from a vicious cycle of poverty, Korea had to overcome a legacy of antiquated traditions in education and training. Koreans had traditionally neglected vocational and technical training, owing partly to Confucianism, which praises scholars of the humanities and farmers while disregards professions in manufacturing and trade. Because parents encouraged their children to pursue academic education in colleges and hold white-collar jobs, industries lagged behind with few technicians, skilled workers, and blue-collar workers. To make matters worse, Japanese colonial rule prohibited Koreans from accumulating both physical and human capital for entrepreneurship in industrial sectors. The three years of the Korean War with the division of the Korean peninsula also devastated the economic and social infrastructure and fundamentals for economic growth.

This content is available to you

Ju-Ho Lee, Hyeok Jeong and Song Chang Hong

This content is available to you

Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

This content is available to you

Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

This content is available to you

W. John Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

This content is available to you

Muchu Zhang and Ruth Hayhoe

The chapter provides a detailed historical analysis of the cultural and global influences on the modernization of China’s basic education, higher education and teacher education. It concludes that Chinese education has grown from its cultural roots, and should explain the educational dimensions of the Confucian heritage to a world that has become increasingly interested in its language, culture and society.

This content is available to you

Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

This content is available to you

Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

This content is available to you

Thomas David DuBois

This chapter examines the roots of public welfare in China, spanning the crucial 100 years before the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic, and highlighting the political importance of welfare provision across a range of very different Chinese regimes. Rather than attempting to map the contemporary Western understanding of welfare onto history, it presents Chinese ideas and institutions on their own terms. During the late nineteenth century, well-established traditions of State and private charity provision began to transform in the face of new pressures and opportunities, including the arrival of Christian missionary institutions. In the early twentieth century, China was divided into a number of regimes, including the Republic of China, the Communist-held areas and the Japanese client regime in Manchuria. This political fragmentation caused the welfare tradition to diversify into a number of competing ideologies and strategies. The transformation of welfare provision during this century was driven by a number of interrelated processes: the growing influence of foreign actors and institutions; the formation of legal and legislative frameworks for the rights and responsibilities of welfare providers; and the shift in balance between private and State initiative, and between disaster relief and longer-term programmes of economic development. This history continues to tangibly shape contemporary political and social attitudes towards welfare provision.

This content is available to you

Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao