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Edited by John R. Bryson, Ronald V. Kalafsky and Vida Vanchan
Edited by John R. Bryson, Lauren Andres, Aksel Ersoy and Louise Reardon
Edited by Miloš N. Mladenović, Tuuli Toivonen, Elias Willberg and Karst T. Geurs
Céline Rozenblat and Zachary P. Neal
The urban networks discussed in this volume, and that appear in the literature more broadly, are characterized by significant diversity. This is perhaps not a surprise as the study of urban networks is necessarily interdisciplinary, drawing on theoretical foundations from geography, economics, psychology and sociology, and on methodological tools including ethnographic and qualitative methods from sociology, and quantitative methods from mathematics and physics. However, although the flexibility of network models to capture a wide range of urban phenomena is a key strength of the approach and a source of intellectual diversity, it can also be a source of confusion. Different fields and different research questions require studying different types of urban networks, often defined in very different ways, which obscures their commonalities. In this introductory chapter, we sketch a framework for integrating the diversity of urban networks by situating them along the dimensions of level and scale. These two dimensions define, respectively, the aggregation and spatial scope of the nodes, and therefore provide critical parameters for defining an urban network. In some instances, a network’s level and scale are defined implicitly by the research question, but we contend there is still value in being explicit about level and scale. Similarly, although a great deal of past research on urban networks has explored only specific intersections of level and scale (for example, networks of people at the local scale, or networks of cities at the global scale), we contend that exploring urban networks with different combinations of levels and scales offers opportunities for new insights that the reader will find in this volume. We begin by describing the level/scale framework in general, then discuss the case of economic urban networks as an extended example, and use the framework to explore commonalities among the diverse urban networks in this volume. We conclude by discussing ways that levels and scales can be made more explicit in urban networks, and the potential benefits for studying urban networks at multiple levels and scales.
David J. O’Brien
David J. O’Brien
Edited by Annelies Zoomers, Maggi Leung, Kei Otsuki and Guus Van Westen
This handbook provides an expansive and multi-disciplinary interrogation of the spaces and places of law, advancing cutting-edge insights as to the numerous intersections of space, place and law in our lives. We engage relationally in a material world - of space and place - within which we are inter-dependent and reliant, and governed by laws in a dynamic process rarely linear and never fixed. This collection combines contributions from around the world focusing on methodology, embodied experience, legal pluralism, conflict and resistance, non-human and place agency, and covering cross-cutting themes including social (in)equality and environmental justice, sustainability, urban development, Indigenous legal systems, colonialism and property law. A diversity of places and spaces are represented, spanning Australia, Bolivia, Canada, China, France, Fiji, India, Kiribati, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Scholars, students and practitioners will find this a valuable compendium of the breadth and strength of scholarship in space, place and law.
This Handbook of Public Transport Research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research in a growing field: the field of research on urban public transport. The quantity of public transport related research papers has doubled in the last nine years. Why? For two reasons. First, researchers have been increasingly inspired by the topic. It is an applied and practical topic affecting the quality of life of billions of people. It is also a field with significant challenges, seeking new and original solutions. These challenges range from the difficult interface of engineering, operations and human perceptions in user satisfaction and performance management, to the tricky balance between prudent financial management, operations planning and the social access goals making subsidies essential. These challenges require a multi-disciplinary perspective to wicked problems in Engineering, Planning, Psychology and Design, which is why the field is intellectually as well as tactically challenging. The foundation of many of these challenges is the conflicting congestion and environmental relief, and the social equity objectives that justify public transport in cities.