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John D. Graham
Esteban Pérez Caldentey and Matías Vernengo
The year 2019 marked the 40th anniversary of the publication of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s classic paper titled ‘The balance-of-payments constraint as an explanation of international growth rate differences’ (Thirlwall 1979). This article introduced and provided empirical evidence in favor of the proposition that the long-run rate of growth of an economy compatible with balance-of-payments equilibrium can be approximated by the simple rule of the ratio of the growth of exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports.