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Marcela Ramírez Pasillas, Ethel Brundin and Magdalena Markowska
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the collection. Adults spend over one-third of their waking hours at work. Work can enhance or diminish well-being. Well-being is an umbrella concept including happiness, satisfaction, positive affect and flourishing among others. Stress at work is a major factor influencing well-being. Workplace stress exerts a high financial cost to societies, thus well-being is important for both individuals and organizations. Sources of stress that have received research attention include long work hours, autocratic leadership, bias and discrimination, sexual harassment, low levels of job security, and unsafe work environments. The goal for organizations then is to create more psychologically healthy and positive workplaces. Factors associated with such workplaces include types of leadership (transformational, servant), levels of job security, reasonable workloads, opportunities to increase person–job fit, training and development opportunities, high levels of job civility and fairness, investments in developing human capital in all employees, and fun at work. Organizational case studies of psychologically healthy workplaces are offered.
Flemming Sørensen and Francesco Lapenta
This introductory chapter of the service innovation research methods book introduces the aim and purpose of the book. It describes the theoretical framework that underpins the book and its individual chapters. The framework includes considerations about a) the theoretical and methodological dimensions of service innovation, b) contemporary trends in service innovation and research, and c) society’s expectations of service innovation research. Additionally, the chapter introduces the content of the individual chapters and thus provides an overview of the contents of the book.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter reviews a wide range of literature on the “sandwich generation.” Women and men in the sandwich generation are caregivers to their young and older children as well as to one or both parents while managing their own household and work responsibilities. Sandwiched individuals report high levels of stress – physical, emotional and financial. Most sandwiched people are in their 50s and 60s. The sandwich generation is projected to grow dramatically over the next 30 years. Employed caregivers need to make work-related adjustments to undertake care. One response is to work fewer hours. Women undertake more caregiving than do men. The sandwich generation is a worldwide phenomenon with wide country differences in the levels and types of support available to caregivers. The caregiving relationship is complex, involving gender of caregiver, parents and parents-in-law, ethnic differences, resident versus non-resident caregivers, and changes in the relationship over time, sometimes involving Alzheimer’s and dementia. But there are benefits to caregivers as well, including improved relationships, using skills and developing new skills, and generously giving to another. Organizations need to address increases in caregiving among their employees and develop policies and initiatives that support these valued employees. Examples of such initiatives are described. There is also a need at the country level to integrate employees, communities, employers, businesses and levels of government to deal with this increasing trend. Key words: definition of sandwich generation, strains and benefits of caregiving, organizational challenges, supportive organization and government interventions.