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Tim Congdon

Most analyses of the Great Recession have blamed it on weaknesses of banking systems, notably excessive losses and a lack of capital. However, this mainstream approach is far from convincing, as most banks had higher capital/asset ratios ahead of the crisis than on average in recent decades. An alternative argument – that the falls in asset prices and slump in demand were due to a crash in the rate of money growth – is proposed, and is shown to be applicable to the main countries.

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Preface

Innovations, Networks and Collaborations

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Martin Andersson and Lina Bjerke

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Preface

Challenges and Opportunities

Edited by K. N. Ninan and Makoto Inoue

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Tim Congdon

The introduction explains why the Quantity Theory of Money is relevant to understanding the causes of the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, just as it was relevant to understanding the causes of the USA’s Great Depression of 1929–33.

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Introduction

Innovations, Networks and Collaborations

Martin Andersson, Lina Bjerke and Charlie Karlsson

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Introduction

Challenges and Opportunities

K.N. Ninan and Makoto Inoue

Climate change poses a great challenge to governments, societies and entities. This chapter discusses the need for building climate resilience, approaches for building climate resilience and the challenges and opportunities for building resilience to address the risks posed by climate change. It then discusses issues related to vulnerability, adaptation and resilience, sectoral perspectives, incentives, institutions, REDD+, local climate finance, and climate policy.

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Introduction

Counting the Environment and Natural Resources

Tiho Ancev, M.A. Samad Azad and Francesc Hernández-Sancho

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Thijs ten Raa

The core instrument of input-output analysis is a matrix of technical coefficients. This input-output matrix orders national accounts by interconnecting the use and make statistics of the different sectors, traces indirect economic effects or multipliers, and is used to map environmental impacts or footprints. At all levels there are issues of its dimension, not only size but also type - commodities or industries - and resolution of these issues requires that statisticians, economists (applied and theoretical), and policy analysts (including environmental) familiarize themselves with each other's work. All contribute various chapters of the handbook and these are interrelated in this introductory chapter.

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Brett Dolter and Peter A. Victor

In this introductory chapter we, the editors, provide an overview of the Handbook on Growth and Sustainability. We begin by clarifying the purpose of this handbook: to contribute to the debate over whether economic growth is compatible with sustainability, and, if it is not, to recommend what can be done to achieve sustainability. We then outline the logic of the handbook structure. The handbook contains 22 chapters (not including ours) divided into five parts. In the first part, entitled ‘What is growth? What is sustainability’, contributors clarify terms and explore some of the history of the growth and sustainability debate. In the second part, ‘Can growth be sustainable?’, contributors present a range of perspectives on this important question. Some contributors answer yes, some answer no, and some say we focus too much on this question and should adopt an agnostic perspective. The third part, ‘Is the end of growth nigh? Sustainability constraints on growth’, features contributors writing about the serious issues that threaten to constrain growth. These include issues such as energy scarcity, food system environmental impacts, and uncertain technological development. Contributors in Part IV, ‘Are there imperatives for growth?’, outline the difficulty of moving away from a growth-based economic system. Growth promises to alleviate unemployment and inequality. Our contributors explore whether these can be alleviated without growth. Our debt-based monetary system appears to depend on growth. Contributors explore whether debt-based money creates a monetary imperative for growth. In the final part, ‘Is it possible to move beyond growth culture?’, our contributors ask what it would take for us to move away from a growth-based economic system. How would employment change? How would culture change? Would we make more of the products we use? Is it possible for humanity to plot a new course, or are we hamstrung by our biological inheritance and incapable of changing quickly enough to avoid calamity? We hope that in the end, whether you read the book in sequence, following the line of argument we set out in this introductory chapter, or use this introduction to select which chapters to read first, the handbook will challenge and clarify your thinking on the growth and sustainability debate.

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Foreword

Did a Crash in Money Growth Cause the Global Slump?

Edited by Tim Congdon