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Preface

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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Introduction

The Rest Beyond the West

Vladimir Popov

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Foreword

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Edited by Israel Solorio and Helge Jörgens

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The EU and the promotion of renewable energy: an analytical framework

Comparing Europeanization and Domestic Policy Change in EU Member States

Helge Jörgens and Israel Solorio

Chapter 1 presents the analytical framework used throughout the book to study how renewable energy policies in the EU member states emerged and have changed throughout the past three decades. In order to study renewable energy policymaking in the European Union (EU) and its member states and to untangle the complex policy processes that surround it, the authors draw on the Europeanization framework as their principal analytical tool. Adopting a Europeanization perspective allows emphasis to be put not only on the domestic drivers of national policy change, but also on the (sometimes neglected) role of the EU in renewable energy sources promotion. It also directs the analytical focus to the interactive nature of EU policymaking, characterized by an interdependent mix of uploading, downloading and cross-loading of policies and programmes between the European and the national levels and across EU member states. In order to adequately account for the multiplicity of factors that drive policy change in the European multi-level polity, the authors distinguish between three types of Europeanization – bottom-up, top-down, and horizontal – all of which prove to be relevant in some countries or at some point in time. By explicitly adding a horizontal dimension, the analytical framework goes beyond traditional concepts of Europeanization as a two-way process where member state governments either shape European policy outcomes (bottom-up Europeanization) or adapt to them (top-down Europeanization). Keywords: bottom-up Europeanization, Europeanization, horizontal Europeanization, policy diffusion, renewable energy policy, top-down Europeanization

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Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram

The chapter reviews catch-up or converging growth in parts of the Global South. By 1950, US per capita national income, adjusted for purchasing power, was nearly five times the world average. Since then, Western Europe and Japan have closed their per capita income gaps with the USA. East Asia, South Asia and some other developing countries have also started to close gaps with the West in recent decades. Thus, after two centuries of growing economic divergence, the world has witnessed an era of uneven convergence between parts of the South and the North. Alternative scenarios and some future implications are considered.

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Acknowledgments

The Rest Beyond the West

Edited by Vladimir Popov and Piotr Dutkiewicz

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Why is imitation not innovation?

Alternative Approaches to the Pro-Innovation Bias

Benoît Godin

Innovation theorists relegate to non-existence a series of concepts outside the semantic field of innovation. Such is the case of imitation. The chapter looks at when, how and why imitation, as an early meaning of innovation, was removed from the discourses on innovation. The chapter suggests that cultural values, disciplinary work, market ideology and semantics are key factors in explaining the neglect of imitation in discourses on innovation, particularly theories.

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Steven A. Peterson and Albert Somit

This chapter provides an overview of the Handbook. The narrative begins with an examination of some of the historical forebears of the study of biology and politics (or biopolitics, as some refer to it). Following that is a brief description of evolutionary theory—a key underpinning of this intellectual endeavor. What has this perspective contributed to political science as a discipline? The chapter discusses some of the research that has spoken to mainstream political science concerns. This allows the reader to see how biopolitics might fit within the larger discipline of political science. Finally, this introduction contains a roadmap to the rest of the volume, noting the organization of the Handbook and summarizing the chapters appearing in each section.

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Social investment: concepts, uses and theoretical perspectives

International and Critical Perspectives

James Midgley

The first chapter by James Midgley provides a broad introduction to the concept of social investment and the way it is used in different academic and professional fields. Noting that the term ‘social investment’ is poorly defined, he offers a definition and examines the meaning of terms such as ‘investment’, ‘consumption’, ‘income’, ‘assets’ and ‘capital’ which are widely used in economics. The chapter then reviews the different ways the term ‘social investment’ has been used in four academic and professional fields, namely social policy, nonprofit management, community studies and development studies where investment ideas have been influential since the 1950s. The chapter contends that scholars will benefit from understanding the way the concept of social investment has been employed in these different academic and professional fields. It concludes by suggesting that may be possible to synthesize these different approaches to promote a comprehensive and globally relevant interpretation that will enhance the academic and policy relevance of social investment ideas. Key words: social investment, international social welfare, social policy

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References

Authority and Exchange in a Global Age

David Reisman