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Preface

Achieving Fiscal Sustainability

Edited by Naoyuki Yoshino and Peter J. Morgan

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Peter J. Morgan and Long Q. Trinh

Sustainable and inclusive growth in emerging Asian economies requires continued high levels of public sector investment in areas such as infrastructure, education, health, and social services. These responsibilities, especially with regard to infrastructure investment, need to be devolved increasingly to the regional government level. However, growth of sources of revenue and financing for local governments has not necessarily kept pace, forcing them, in some cases, to increase borrowing or cut spending below needed levels. This chapter reviews alternative models of the relationship between central and local governments, and provides an overview and assessment of different financing mechanisms for local governments, including tax revenues, central government transfers, bank loans, and bond issuance, with a focus on the context of emerging Asian economies. The chapter also reviews financing mechanisms for local governments and mechanisms for maintaining fiscal stability and sustainability at both the central and local government levels. Based upon the evidence on the decentralization process in Asia, it proposes some policy implications for improving central–local government relations and fiscal sustainability.

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Muchu Zhang and Ruth Hayhoe

The chapter provides a detailed historical analysis of the cultural and global influences on the modernization of China’s basic education, higher education and teacher education. It concludes that Chinese education has grown from its cultural roots, and should explain the educational dimensions of the Confucian heritage to a world that has become increasingly interested in its language, culture and society.

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W. John Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Thomas David DuBois

This chapter examines the roots of public welfare in China, spanning the crucial 100 years before the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic, and highlighting the political importance of welfare provision across a range of very different Chinese regimes. Rather than attempting to map the contemporary Western understanding of welfare onto history, it presents Chinese ideas and institutions on their own terms. During the late nineteenth century, well-established traditions of State and private charity provision began to transform in the face of new pressures and opportunities, including the arrival of Christian missionary institutions. In the early twentieth century, China was divided into a number of regimes, including the Republic of China, the Communist-held areas and the Japanese client regime in Manchuria. This political fragmentation caused the welfare tradition to diversify into a number of competing ideologies and strategies. The transformation of welfare provision during this century was driven by a number of interrelated processes: the growing influence of foreign actors and institutions; the formation of legal and legislative frameworks for the rights and responsibilities of welfare providers; and the shift in balance between private and State initiative, and between disaster relief and longer-term programmes of economic development. This history continues to tangibly shape contemporary political and social attitudes towards welfare provision.

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Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

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Jacques Silber and Guanghua Wan