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Frank Hoy, Rozenn Perrigot and Andrew Terry

This chapter begins with an overview of the significant role that the franchise model plays in the global economy. Despite the number of enterprises, volume of revenues generated, and jobs created, franchising has received relatively little attention in scholarly publications and in educational programmes. Prior literature reviews are cited, highlighting subjects that have received some attention. Brief previews of the other chapters in the Handbook are provided. The chapter and the entire Handbook are offered as encouragement for further research into franchising.

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G. Scott Erickson

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Edited by Frank Hoy, Rozenn Perrigot and Andrew Terry

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Edited by Frank Hoy, Rozenn Perrigot and Andrew Terry

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G. Scott Erickson

Chapter 1 covers definitions and methods related to big data systems. Placing big data monitoring systems in the context of loyalty programs developed by Tesco/dunnhumby and Caesar’s, the discussion characterizes what big data is, how systems collect and share it, and how it is used to enhance day-to-day decision-making. Concepts like key performance indicators and action-oriented algorithms are included. Coverage then moves to more in-depth marketing analytics related to big data. Here, the marketing approaches of Spotify and Bloomberg are used to illustrate and explain how analysts cut the data in different ways looking for insights as well as conducting predictive and clustering analysis.

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Adriana Campelo

This chapter examines the origins of branding places and the evolution of brands in terms of geographic locations and purposes. Place branding finds roots in country-of-origin theory and tourism destination image. Types of geographic brands include destination branding, nation branding, city branding and regional branding. The geographic brands adopt particular strategies depending upon motivations and goals. In common, national, regional and city brands have the need of collaboration and the challenge of reconciling many stakeholders. Albeit marketing techniques may vary from one type of geographic branding to another, the underlying aim remains to reach some kind of social and economic development. Place branding comes together with other initiatives of public management such as infrastructure, education, safeness, positive business environment, public–private partnerships and local population involvement.

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Edited by Adriana Campelo

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Edited by Adriana Campelo

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Søren Harnow Klausen

The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of the general notion of innovation, informed by empirical results and with an eye to practical applications. Innovation is distinguished from creativity on the one hand and entrepreneurship on the other, but defined broadly enough to comprise much more than technological inventiveness (for example social innovation). The popular two-step model of innovation processes is criticized and instead an integrated model is proposed as a superior alternative. The notions of macro- and micro-innovation are supplemented by a notion of still subtler, process-immanent improvements. Finally, the close relationship between innovation and learning is examined.