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Adriana Campelo

This chapter examines the origins of branding places and the evolution of brands in terms of geographic locations and purposes. Place branding finds roots in country-of-origin theory and tourism destination image. Types of geographic brands include destination branding, nation branding, city branding and regional branding. The geographic brands adopt particular strategies depending upon motivations and goals. In common, national, regional and city brands have the need of collaboration and the challenge of reconciling many stakeholders. Albeit marketing techniques may vary from one type of geographic branding to another, the underlying aim remains to reach some kind of social and economic development. Place branding comes together with other initiatives of public management such as infrastructure, education, safeness, positive business environment, public–private partnerships and local population involvement.

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Edited by Adriana Campelo

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Edited by Adriana Campelo

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Søren Harnow Klausen

The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of the general notion of innovation, informed by empirical results and with an eye to practical applications. Innovation is distinguished from creativity on the one hand and entrepreneurship on the other, but defined broadly enough to comprise much more than technological inventiveness (for example social innovation). The popular two-step model of innovation processes is criticized and instead an integrated model is proposed as a superior alternative. The notions of macro- and micro-innovation are supplemented by a notion of still subtler, process-immanent improvements. Finally, the close relationship between innovation and learning is examined.

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Eric Shiu

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Edward F. McQuarrie and Barbara J. Phillips

This chapter explains why the 1890s are a suitable point of beginning for a historical examination of visual branding in the United States. It profiles five phases in the development of visual branding in the context of magazine advertising: (1) tentative early attempts around 1900; (2) rapid development in the 1920s; (3) growing sophistication in the 1950s; (4) the culmination of color printing in the 1980s; and (5) and the transition to the new, Photoshop-influenced era of digital media in the 2000s. This chapter also develops the importance of technological developments in shaping actual practice in visual branding.
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Edited by Anders Örtenblad

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Gunjan Saxena

Chapter 1 sets the scene for Marketing Rural Tourism: Experience and Enterprise. The emphasis is on placing individual narratives within collective stories with a view to illustrating the ingenuity and sociality of actors involved in selling and performing rurality. The focus is on how rurality is experienced dialectically as a resonance between past life stories (through shared memory) and present life stories that hint at the creative tactics employed by actors in (re)working the place to generate custom and fuel tourists’ imagination.