The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of the general notion of innovation, informed by empirical results and with an eye to practical applications. Innovation is distinguished from creativity on the one hand and entrepreneurship on the other, but defined broadly enough to comprise much more than technological inventiveness (for example social innovation). The popular two-step model of innovation processes is criticized and instead an integrated model is proposed as a superior alternative. The notions of macro- and micro-innovation are supplemented by a notion of still subtler, process-immanent improvements. Finally, the close relationship between innovation and learning is examined.
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Søren Harnow Klausen
Pervez N. Ghauri and Agnieszka Chidlow
Edward F. McQuarrie and Barbara J. Phillips
This chapter explains why the 1890s are a suitable point of beginning for a historical examination of visual branding in the United States. It profiles five phases in the development of visual branding in the context of magazine advertising: (1) tentative early attempts around 1900; (2) rapid development in the 1920s; (3) growing sophistication in the 1950s; (4) the culmination of color printing in the 1980s; and (5) and the transition to the new, Photoshop-influenced era of digital media in the 2000s. This chapter also develops the importance of technological developments in shaping actual practice in visual branding.
Edited by Anders Örtenblad
Chapter 1 sets the scene for Marketing Rural Tourism: Experience and Enterprise. The emphasis is on placing individual narratives within collective stories with a view to illustrating the ingenuity and sociality of actors involved in selling and performing rurality. The focus is on how rurality is experienced dialectically as a resonance between past life stories (through shared memory) and present life stories that hint at the creative tactics employed by actors in (re)working the place to generate custom and fuel tourists’ imagination.
This chapter presents the research area and research questions and introduces the remaining chapters of the book. It is argued that while there are quite a few works on how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is practiced in various contexts, there is a need for more research on how CSR should be practiced by organizations in various generalized contexts, and, thus, that there is a need for a contingency model of CSR. A broad, general definition – based on Jeremy Moon’s work – in terms of seven aspects is introduced, and this definition is used as a common starting point for the book, in which the relevance of each aspect is examined for organizations in various generalized contexts. The chapter also presents the research questions for the book, which are to pay attention to and acknowledge the need for examining the relevance of CSR for organizations in different generalized contexts as an emerging research field, to explore the universality of CSR, to offer knowledge (as well as support for further knowledge-seeking) on how the general model of CSR needs to be adapted to become relevant to organizations within particular generalized contexts, and to begin the work on constructing a contingency model of the relevance of CSR for organizations in various generalized contexts.