This chapter examines the origins of branding places and the evolution of brands in terms of geographic locations and purposes. Place branding finds roots in country-of-origin theory and tourism destination image. Types of geographic brands include destination branding, nation branding, city branding and regional branding. The geographic brands adopt particular strategies depending upon motivations and goals. In common, national, regional and city brands have the need of collaboration and the challenge of reconciling many stakeholders. Albeit marketing techniques may vary from one type of geographic branding to another, the underlying aim remains to reach some kind of social and economic development. Place branding comes together with other initiatives of public management such as infrastructure, education, safeness, positive business environment, public–private partnerships and local population involvement.
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Edited by Adriana Campelo
Edited by Adriana Campelo
Dimitrios P. Stergiou and David Airey
Tourism employers are discovering that their workforce requires certain skills that tourism graduates seem to be missing. Identifying industry expectations for tourism graduates is an important step in developing tourism curricula that are responsive to industry needs. Educational institutions are therefore encouraged to incorporate key skills in their curricula. This chapter represents an effort to create an interface between the industry and higher education institutions. It reports on the findings of an interview study conducted with tourism professionals who represent various sectors of the tourism industry in Athens, Greece. The geographic area was chosen for its representation of a number of tourism sectors. The study asked about the industry’s expectations regarding education and skills of tourism graduates entering the workplace. The chapter presents background information from the literature regarding international and Greek experiences, and the methodology employed within the study. Study findings identify specific industry expectations for tourism graduates and suggest that there is a considerable gap between what is taught in tourism education and what is actually needed and required by the industry. These findings replicate and complement those of previous studies in the vocational link of tourism courses in Greece. Taken together, these efforts offer a useful and cross-validated view of the demands tourism graduates are facing, and a mandate to tourism educators to develop tourism curricula in response to them. The chapter suggests that incorporating industry input in the curriculum will allow tourism education to provide an improved service for its graduates and tourism employers.
Edited by Pierre Benckendorff and Anita Zehrer
Chapter 1 sets the scene for Marketing Rural Tourism: Experience and Enterprise. The emphasis is on placing individual narratives within collective stories with a view to illustrating the ingenuity and sociality of actors involved in selling and performing rurality. The focus is on how rurality is experienced dialectically as a resonance between past life stories (through shared memory) and present life stories that hint at the creative tactics employed by actors in (re)working the place to generate custom and fuel tourists’ imagination.