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Sara Hsu

Chapter 1 introduces the topic of financial crises and discusses the outline of the book. Financial crises have occurred for centuries, and after the Great Recession of 2008 which began in the US and spread globally, both economists and policy makers have realized that economically developed countries are not immune from such phenomena. This book seeks to describe and analyze the events, causes, and outcomes of crises from the Great Depression to the Great Recession, unifying a vast amount of literature on each crisis. We start from a general discussion of the global financial system and the roots of crises, both theoretical and empirical. We then discuss crises between 1929 and 2011. We briefly discuss select events before 1929, but focus on the Great Depression and beyond since these crises were created within or bore the current policies and institutions of our current financial system. Keywords: financial crises
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Roy E. Allen

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Roy E. Allen

Since the 1970s, the rapid expansion and globalization of financial markets shadows most other developments in international economics. This chapter documents and defines financial globalization and discusses what caused it: developments in information-processing technologies; government deregulation; and the more global nature of all economic activity. International interest rate and financial strategy ‘parities’ are presented as new, dominant, dynamic patterns in the global economy. Financial market globalization has been a driving force behind recent imbalances in trade and investment between countries. And, the self-adjustment mechanisms within the global economy have been irreversibly changed by financial globalization.
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Robert W. Kolb

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Pascal Salin

Studying an international system implies having a definition of a nation, in order to assess to what extent the analysis of an international phenomenon can be different from an analysis which does not take into consideration the existence of nations. This chapter stresses that several definitions of a nation can be given, but what is important is defining a nation from the point of view of monetary problems. By comparison with the traditional definition of a nation in trade theory, a monetary area – or a monetary nation – can be defined as an area of circulation of a currency. The chapter also discusses whether or not a monetary area should coincide, for instance, with a political area.
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Marek Belka, Ewald Nowotny, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald and Pawel Samecki

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Gordon Rausser, Holly Amedon and Reid Stevens

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Gordon Rausser, Holly Amedon and Reid Stevens

Despite fostering US productivity growth, public sector contributions to university research budgets have steadily declined over the last few decades. As a result, the need to actively seek alternative sources of funding has become increasingly imperative. Private industry frequently offers a viable alternative, now accounting for over 70 percent of national research and development budgets, not only because of its financial resources but because of the dramatic synergies of knowledge assets that arise from successful alliances with universities. Fostering the formation of public–private research partnerships (PPRPs), legislation emerging from the US Senate in the form of the Bayh–Dole Act granted patent rights from federally funded research to universities and small businesses. This legislation created incentives for universities to select areas of research that are likely to result in commercially valuable innovations. The task of PPRP formation is complex and delicate, with many contentious issues arising such as conflict of public and private interests, setting research priorities, ownership and access to intellectual property, and academic researcher publication delays. At the center of the PPRP controversy is the absence of a framework for structuring research agreements and for assessing the inherent merit of such contracts. We present a four-stage framework for analyzing the structure of contracts for PPRPs, recognizing that the essence of PPRPs is a set of “control rights” rooted in incomplete contracting and financial control rights theory. Our framework shows how control rights can be effectively identified, valued, and allotted between research partners.

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  • KDI/EWC series on Economic Policy

Edited by Dongsoo Kang and Andrew Mason

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  • KDI/EWC series on Economic Policy

Dongsoo Kang and Andrew Mason