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Henrique Schneider

The chapter provides the background on the economics of this book, on the ‘sharing economy’ and how Uber can be assessed as an economic agent. This book understands markets as open-ended undetermined series of exchanges between a potentially unlimited number of agents. These agents engage voluntarily in the different market processes without knowing more than the other agents but judging their own beliefs, preferences and costs subjectively. Agents use the market processes in order to learn about other agents’ beliefs, preferences and costs. Market processes are cooperative actions. Whatever might be labelled the sharing economy relies on these market processes and does not in any way fundamentally change them. The sharing economy is not different from the traditional economy; to the contrary, it applies and broadens the application of market processes and individual actions. However, the role that technology plays is important. With the development of online networking, e- and online payment methods as well as individual online mobility, many business models gain scale and scope. Technology often makes it possible to diminish costs of participating in a market process, to learn quickly or gather information in a timely manner as well as to scale up some market processes. Uber, in due entrepreneurial spirit, seized this opportunity and turned it into a successful business model.
Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Up to this point, this manual has discussed how much disposable income a reference size family needs to be able to afford a basic but decent standard of living. However, almost all countries have statutory deductions from pay that need to be taken into account to ensure that workers have sufficient take home pay. Chapter 14 discusses various statutory deductions from pay such as income tax, social security, worker contributions to national health schemes, etc. and indicates how to take them into account in estimating a living wage. The chapter distinguishes between voluntary deductions from pay such as Christmas savings funds (which is treated as ordinary expenditure), personal deductions from pay which apply to only some individuals such as loan repayment or alimony (which are also treated as ordinary expenditure), and statutory deductions from pay such as for taxes or social security paid by all workers. Statutory deductions from pay are taken into consideration in the calculation of a living wage estimate in the Anker methodology. This is important because statutory deductions from pay can be considerable even in poor countries and for workers with low wages. Since statutory deductions vary from country to country and sometimes even between locations within countries, calculating the amount of statutory deductions needs to be location-specific. A hypothetical example is provided of how this calculation should be made in a country with a fairly simple tax code.

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

The Anker methodology is intended to produce more than just a number. It is intended to be used as a catalyst for action. To that end, a living wage report using the Anker methodology should describe each step in the estimation process in a clear and transparent way, so that workers, employers, unions, the value chain, the public, researchers, governments and NGOs are able to understand what goes into estimating a living wage in the Anker methodology. Chapter 18 provides an annotated outline of what should be included in a living wage report as a standard guide for writing up the results of a living wage study.

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Because the estimate of non-food non-housing costs (NFNH) is based on secondary data and not on normative standards, the Anker methodology includes extra checks dubbed post checks on the preliminary estimate for NFNH costs, to ensure that enough is included in NFNH costs for the education of children and adequate health care, because these are considered human rights around the world. A post check for transport costs is sometimes also done when this is a large expenditure for families. Chapter 8 describes the general principles and approaches to carrying out a post check. A description of a transport post check is included in an annex.

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Mårten Blix

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

A living wage is a family wage and in the twenty-first century the model of a single male worker in the family is not realistic. Therefore, the Anker methodology considers that it is appropriate to defray the cost of a decent living standard for a reference size family over the average number full-time equivalent workers per family in the location, which is between one and two workers and depends on location. As there is a good deal of variation around the world in the extent to which women are in the labor force, as well as large differences in labor force participation between rural and urban areas, the number of full-time equivalent workers per family needs to be location-specific in order to be realistic. Chapter 13 explains how to combine data on labor force participation rates, unemployment rates and part time employment rates to estimate the number of full-time equivalent workers per family. An example of how to estimate the number of workers per family for a living wage study is provided.