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Introduction

The Rest Beyond the West

Vladimir Popov

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Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram

The chapter reviews catch-up or converging growth in parts of the Global South. By 1950, US per capita national income, adjusted for purchasing power, was nearly five times the world average. Since then, Western Europe and Japan have closed their per capita income gaps with the USA. East Asia, South Asia and some other developing countries have also started to close gaps with the West in recent decades. Thus, after two centuries of growing economic divergence, the world has witnessed an era of uneven convergence between parts of the South and the North. Alternative scenarios and some future implications are considered.

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Acknowledgments

The Rest Beyond the West

Edited by Vladimir Popov and Piotr Dutkiewicz

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Mark Skidmore

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Franco Malerba, Sunil Mani and Pamela Adams

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Edited by Franco Malerba, Sunil Mani and Pamela Adams

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Kenneth A. Reinert

This volume on globalisation and development is part of a larger Elgar Handbook series on globalisation. Its chapters engage two multidimensional concepts: globalisation and development. In doing so, it does not impose a particular conception of either. Rather, authors were given full rein to treat these subjects as they thought best in light of their particular subjects. The volume is structured around seven subjects: international trade, international production, international finance, migration, foreign aid, a broader view and challenges. The volume’s chapters provide important insights into each of these realms of globalisation and development.

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Edited by Kenneth A. Reinert

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Open access

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Up to this point, this manual has discussed how much disposable income a reference size family needs to be able to afford a basic but decent standard of living. However, almost all countries have statutory deductions from pay that need to be taken into account to ensure that workers have sufficient take home pay. Chapter 14 discusses various statutory deductions from pay such as income tax, social security, worker contributions to national health schemes, etc. and indicates how to take them into account in estimating a living wage. The chapter distinguishes between voluntary deductions from pay such as Christmas savings funds (which is treated as ordinary expenditure), personal deductions from pay which apply to only some individuals such as loan repayment or alimony (which are also treated as ordinary expenditure), and statutory deductions from pay such as for taxes or social security paid by all workers. Statutory deductions from pay are taken into consideration in the calculation of a living wage estimate in the Anker methodology. This is important because statutory deductions from pay can be considerable even in poor countries and for workers with low wages. Since statutory deductions vary from country to country and sometimes even between locations within countries, calculating the amount of statutory deductions needs to be location-specific. A hypothetical example is provided of how this calculation should be made in a country with a fairly simple tax code.