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Michael Kemp, Edward Leamer, James Burrows and Powell Dixon
This chapter presents findings from a study exploring a variety of tactics intended to enhance respondent awareness of budget constraints in answering CV questions, including methods that value a composite good and allocate a total value across different parts of the composite. The research used, as a test bed, a prominent 1995 survey concerning the prevention and remediation of marine oil spills off the central California coast (the “COS study”). Approximately 2400 California households were surveyed online in 2014. Analysis of the responses to split-sample variants of the questionnaire produced the following conclusions: (1) the study evidenced a very marked lack of sensitivity to a huge scope difference (between the COS good and a much larger composite good); (2) the composite good estimate of WTP allocated to marine oil spills was markedly smaller than the single-focus estimate; (3) sizeable proportions of respondents reported various types of cognition difficulties in their responses, and the resulting WTP estimates are sensitive to those difficulties; (4) respondents presented a single-focus COS referendum after completing a budget allocation exercise were slightly less favorable to COS than those not given the budget exercise; (5) a sizeable proportion of respondents experienced cognition difficulties with part-whole relationships; and (6) within-questionnaire “wording additions” intended to enhance budget awareness had a relatively small effect on WTP estimates.
Bjørn T. Asheim, Arne Isaksen, Roman Martin and Michaela Trippl
This chapter deals with the role of clusters and public policy in new regional economic path development. New path development is analysed from an institutional perspective by focusing on changes in the wider regional innovation system (RIS), including firms, universities and governmental agencies, and by placing emphasis on the role that public policy can play. We argue that new regional economic path development requires a broad-based policy approach that stimulates cross-fertilizing effects between different industrial activities within and beyond the region. While cluster policies are well-suited to support the growth and sustainment of existing industries, policies for new path development should aim at regional diversification and variety creation, preferably based on existing strengths and expertise in the region. These ideas are central to the Constructing Regional Advantage (CRA) approach. Empirically, the chapter draws on case study research on two new regional economic growth paths in Sweden and Norway, namely the new media cluster in Southern Sweden and the Oslo Cancer cluster. While the first is an example of path renewal through combining knowledge bases, the latter is an example for new path creation based on scientific knowledge. The empirical analysis underlines the role that public policy can play in facilitating new regional economic path development.
The standard neoclassical method for building macroeconomics upon a microeconomic foundation has proven unable to anticipate and account for actual issues, especially the financial and economic crisis that burst in 2008. In this chapter we show that it would be appropriate to return to the method once used by classical writers, who considered the economy as a whole and referred to institutions and production conditions as the cornerstone of economic activity. This was also Keynes’s method, in developing the concept of a monetary economy of production. We show that a renewed analysis of the economy as a whole would open up a range of new perspectives on macroeconomics.
James Burrows, Powell Dixon and Hiu Man Chan
Brian D. Israel, Jean Martin, Kelly Smith Fayne and Lauren Daniel
Despite myriad methodological shortcomings, some economists continue to advocate for the use of contingent valuation (CV) and other survey methods to estimate non-use values of natural resources. Federal regulatory agencies also continue to explore these methodologies, although both the OPA and CERCLA regulations strongly disfavor their application, and no court has actually relied upon a CV or a similar study to determine the value of natural resource damages. Indeed, several courts have refused to admit CV studies into evidence, ruling that the studies were not an accurate or reliable measure of actual loss. The better and more reliable approach for valuing natural resource loss, from both a legal and policy perspective, is based on the cost of projects needed to repair, replace, or return injured natural resources to baseline conditions where practicable, and compensate for the temporary or interim loss of resources until restoration is complete.
Robert Hassink and Dirk Fornahl
Louis- Philippe Rochon and Sergio Rossi
Rethinking economics is a dramatically urgent necessity in light of the damages caused by the 2008 global financial crisis, resulting from the dominance of mainstream economics. Economic policies implemented since the early 1980s in many countries have induced lower economic growth, higher rates of involuntary unemployment and more income and wealth inequalities than in the previous three decades. A decade after the beginning of this crisis, policy is still unable to provide all citizens with greater economic comforts. This volume contributes to rethinking economics by providing readers at all levels with thoughtful contributions on a range of topics.