Certification and collective marks are special forms of trademarks that ab initio are for the use of multiple sources, subject to the proprietor’s authorization. These marks engender particular issues of law and policy that are related to but distinct from the law and policy of ordinary (or ‘individual’) trademarks. A certification mark indicates that certain characteristics of the marked goods or services conform to particular standards. Collective marks attest primarily to membership of the individual source of the marked goods or services in a particular association such as a trade association. The ensuing chapters explore the historical development of both these types of marks, the connections between them, pertinent trademark law and practice, certifiers’ and membership associations’ liability, legal and commercial significance, use in regulatory and technical standardization frameworks, and emergent sui generis forms of certification, namely ecolabels and electronic authentication marks in digital content. Key words: certification mark; collective mark; law; policy
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Law and Practice
Law and Practice
A consumer survey, as an instrument used to gather data on the beliefs and attitudes of consumers towards trademarks or products, is considered to have vital influence in trademark litigation. In recent years, courts have come to rely increasingly on the results of surveys conducted by one or both litigants in trademark lawsuits. The practical issue for trademark litigants is determining whether, when and how to develop survey evidence, given the cost, time, and other constraints. To shed light on this specific issue, we undertook a statistical analysis of trademark infringement cases in China. By examining 17 836 cases decided by China's courts over a 16-year period from 2001 through 2016, this article presents an empirical study assessing the statistical relationship between the presentation of survey evidence and case outcomes. The goal of our study is to help trademark litigants to determine the importance and value of presenting consumer surveys in trademark infringement case and make more informed decisions about their litigation strategies.
Edited by Johanna Gibson
At the centre of the controversy surrounding the reversal of awards in the Yukos cases is the provisional application laid down in Article 45 of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), which allows a signatory to unilaterally undertake to give affirmative legal effect to the obligations under the ECT on a voluntary and provisional basis. The paper examines the two disparate approaches adopted by the Arbitral Tribunal and the Hague District Court in interpreting the provisional application, namely the ‘all-or-nothing’ approach which necessitates an analysis and determination of whether the principle of provisional application per se is inconsistent with national laws of a signatory and the ‘piecemeal’ approach that requires provisional application to be dependable on the consistency of each provision of the ECT with national laws. The paper further scrutinises the effect that should be given to the provisional application of the ECT and maintains that the controversy has the potential to generate intricate tensions between the finality and rectification of arbitral awards and between international arbitral autonomy and judicial scrutiny instrument, and will have a conclusive impact on the fate of the petition of the Russian Federation.
Helin M Laufer
This paper will critically analyse the International Committee of the Red Cross’ new weapons review and emphasise the importance of considering human rights in the assessment of the legality of weapons. Further, the paper will illustrate this practically by analysing the legality of drones and killer robots from the perspective of the right to life and the prohibition against torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.
Letizia Lo Giacco
Based on the ever-increasing interpretation and application of international law by domestic courts, this paper offers an insight into the practices of judicial citation of international and domestic jurisdictions while adjudicating international criminal law related matters. The paper considers selected instances of judicial citation and operates a prima facie distinction between judicial citation as a finding device and as a justification exercise. It is argued that domestic courts rely on international judicial decisions primarily as a finding device whilst international case law deals with domestic judicial decisions in the realm of justification. The analysis of this material triggers reflections on the relevance of judicial citation for the doctrine of sources of international law, inasmuch as it adds to the formation of normative expectations on subjects of international law, as well as for a scholarly conceptualisation of contemporary international law-making.
Yen Hoang Tran
This case note discusses the recent Award in the South China Sea arbitration and its implications for fisheries management and cooperation in the South China Sea. It argues that by rejecting the validity of the nine-dash line claim, clarifying the maritime entitlements of all the features in the Spratlys, and denouncing a number of Chinese activities in the South China Sea, the Award has remarkably contributed to narrowing the geographical scope of the disputes and thus defining the rights and obligations of States in different maritime areas. Ultimately, the Award has laid the foundation for future regional and bilateral efforts to cooperate, especially those of fisheries management and fisheries management cooperation in the South China Sea.
This article focuses on the normative content of Article 8 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), and examines its implications for the regulation of broadcasting with regards to diversity and free speech. The analysis claims that Article 8 CRPD requires a stricter approach to issues of free speech, in favour of promoting social inclusion for persons with disabilities. The article engages in a comparative examination of EU, French, and UK law on broadcasting to argue that current law and practice (focusing on disability-related complaints) is inadequate to fulfil the obligations imposed by Article 8 CRPD.