In recent years companies have been facing increased scrutiny of their human rights conduct. However, international human rights law has traditionally been state-based yet provides often dissatisfying judicial means of conflict resolution between companies and victims of human rights violations. In practice this leads to a serious governance gap, with the result that many corporate human rights violations go without redress or remedy.
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Karin Lukas, Barbara Linder, Astrid Kutrzeba and Claudia Sprenger
This chapter establishes the foundation for the book’s argument by examining three core questions posed by the 2007–2008 financial crisis. First, what exactly does bank funding encompass? Second, markets already impose capital constraints on all firms so why should governments place additional requirements on how banks fund themselves? Moreover, why should funding regulation target banks given that non-bank intermediaries also play an important role in contemporary credit markets? The 2007–2008 financial crisis provided a laboratory for these questions, which post-crisis regulation has tentatively answered with new standards for bank funding liquidity and capital.