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Joanna R. Quinn
The chapter traces the development of transitional justice (TJ), focusing on four of the most widely used instruments of TJ (criminal prosecutions, reparations, amnesty and truth-telling). It then outlines the development of TJ approaches and instruments around the world. Those same four commonly used instruments are utilized as a means of comparing experiences across continents. Finally, the chapter considers the ‘growing pains’ of the scholarship and practice of transitional justice. The questions raised have arisen because the field has matured to the extent that critical questions can and must be asked. Six of these are considered: deepening international engagement; the effect of contagion; simultaneity and the problems it brings; the call to address economic, social and cultural rights; the limits of what transitional justice can actually address; and the parameters of the transition in question. Origins and development of transitional justice; Europe; Latin America; Sub-Saharan Africa; Asia.
The Swedish Academy Glossary (SAOL) does not list a definition for the term ‘overall assessment’. However, the term ‘overall assessment’ refers to a number of factors, aspects or perspectives that are brought together into a comprehensive assessment, an overall assessment. In this book, the word has a more specific meaning. An overall assessment means that a choice must be made between several possible decision options using certain criteria in order to achieve one or more objectives. This definition addresses both the meaning and the purpose of an overall assessment. Virtually everyone makes overall assessments on a daily basis. This might involve big, important things like purchasing a home: What is our price range? What city/neighbourhood? Running costs (taxes, maintenance, utilities)? Proximity to daycare, school and work? Renovation needs? And so on. Or the assessment might involve where the family should go on holiday. There are a few options (e.g., Spain, Bulgaria or Italy) and a number of selection criteria such as cost, climate and how child-friendly it is. Another example is buying a new car, which will be explored in detail later on. Even in such cases, there are several different options to consider when evaluating the different car models, which have different prices, different environmental performance, different collision safety and comfort levels, and so on.
Gideon Boas and Pascale Chifflet
International criminal justice describes the response of the international community to mass atrocity. How we respond to war, to the rupture of society and to systematized murder and persecution is at the heart of the issue. Which forms of transitional justice we respond with, and how our goals are best achieved, are important questions. But international criminal justice is about more than responses. How do we learn from history or, sometimes, fail to do so? Can we use our understanding of human psychology to better respond to mass atrocity, or better, to prevent it or react to address it sooner? What of the sociological elements that are infused in our response to heinous international crimes; how do these affect our understanding and practice of international criminal justice? Key words: international; criminal; justice; community; atrocity
The maintenance of international peace and security is the very first purpose of the United Nations. The International Court of Justice, the single most important source of international jurisprudence in this area, has a clear understanding of this goal and of its role in achieving it. From the landmark Corfu Channel case to the seminal Nicaragua case and afterwards, the International Court of Justice has developed a sustainable case law on the use of force in international law, in which the Nicaragua case endures as the single pre-eminent judgment. This chapter considers three key aspects established by the Court’s case law — the illegality of unilateral uses of force by states, the necessary threshold for a use of force to give rise to an entitlement to self-defense, and the complementarity of action by United Nations organs in this field. KEYWORDS: peace and security judgments, International Court of Justice, Nicaragua case, use of force, aggression, self-defense