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The Social Challenge Ahead
Edited by Ulf Bernitz, Moa Mårtensson, Lars Oxelheim and Thomas Persson
History, Challenges and Opportunities
The Social Challenge Ahead
Ulf Bernitz, Moa Mårtensson, Lars Oxelheim and Thomas Persson
The introductory chapter provides an overview of the great social challenge that the EU currently faces. The editors raise the question of what can be done to bridge the prosperity gap in Europe. First, they briefly describe the background: the social dimension of European cooperation and its historical development. Second, they identify the new social challenges that the Union faces in the wake of the Great Recession, the ongoing refugee crisis, and the Brexit referendum. Third, an analytical point of departure for examining these challenges is presented, consisting of an interdisciplinary approach that pinpoints a number of overarching problems and possibilities associated with the social dimension of European integration. Fourth and finally, the book’s chapters are introduced, and their key policy recommendations are summarized. The chapter concludes with the argument that much of the EU’s future relevance and ability to stay together depends on its capacity to counteract the prosperity gap and reverse the negative trend that emerged during the crisis.
Towards Regulatory Equilibrium
Marietta E.A. Haffner
In many Western European countries including the Netherlands and France, the market share of private renting decreased massively after World War II. Often strict rent control is deemed to also be responsible for this development. Yet more recent development indicates a further decline of the sector in the Netherlands, whereas its market share stabilized in France. This chapter explains the development of the private rental sector resulting from private individual or person landlords leaving the sector in the Netherlands, but staying in operation as landlords in France. While in France the institutional landlords/investors retreated, in the Netherlands they kept up their rental stock until the subsidization of new investment became less attractive and in the end was abolished. How ‘rent tenure’-neutral subsidization seems to have played a role, is the central focus of this chapter.
Implications for Political and Judicial Accountability
Miroslava Scholten, Michiel Luchtman and Elmar Schmidt
Recently, the powers of the European Union (EU) have evolved from being mainly regulatory to include also direct enforcement competences. Rather than monitoring the enforcement efforts of national authorities (indirect enforcement), direct enforcement by the EU implies that EU enforcement authorities (EEAs) have the power to monitor adherence to legal rules by private actors, as well as to investigate and sanction alleged violations of EU law by those actors. The shift of power from the national to the EU level, especially in such an area as law enforcement, raises concerns about how to ensure democratic control and the rule of law. What challenges in terms of democratic control and the rule of law does this development bring about and how could or should those challenges be addressed? This chapter outlines the research project and sets up an analytical framework for the nine case-studies and cross-cutting issues of accountability and judicial protection.