In many Western European countries including the Netherlands and France, the market share of private renting decreased massively after World War II. Often strict rent control is deemed to also be responsible for this development. Yet more recent development indicates a further decline of the sector in the Netherlands, whereas its market share stabilized in France. This chapter explains the development of the private rental sector resulting from private individual or person landlords leaving the sector in the Netherlands, but staying in operation as landlords in France. While in France the institutional landlords/investors retreated, in the Netherlands they kept up their rental stock until the subsidization of new investment became less attractive and in the end was abolished. How ‘rent tenure’-neutral subsidization seems to have played a role, is the central focus of this chapter.
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Towards Regulatory Equilibrium
Marietta E.A. Haffner
Issues at Stake, Challenges and Recommendations
Lucky Belder and Helle Porsdam
Jan M. Broekman and Frank Fleerackers
‘Thoughts Backing Speech’ underlines that law depends on specific speech acts. One cannot say anything at random in law and about written laws. That is not only the case in law and a lawyer’s profession, but also at peripheries of legal discourse, in a conversation on the street or other public spaces. That theme is disregarded in semiotic studies. Legal meaning-making, which does not take place within the profession, is difficult to trace. Our understanding of law as a citizen is, on the contrary, to a large extent determined by what is talked about, accepted or rejected, thought or neglected beyond the domain of valid law. Thoughts that back this type of speech confront us with major components of law’s discourse such as our evidence of thinking and judging when we discuss law in public. They also regard interactivity and interaction as constitutive in law practices. What unfolds outside the legal profession is often linked to concepts such as ‘nature’ and ‘natural’. ‘Legal consciousness’ is therefore reconsidered. The sign character of laws and their meaning reintroduce the semiotic relevance of human expressivity, of our understanding the multilingual character of reality in law, and of the basics of human rights – altogether issues that constitute every legal conversation anywhere. Keywords Street, Periphery of law, Interactivity, Interaction, Legal consciousness, Human rights, Multilingual realities
Maurice Adams and Corien Prins
The transformative impact of digitalization on society and the state of democracy can scarcely be overestimated. Effects are visible within the national state and across borders, as well as on knowledge production and political participation and social structures. In this introductory chapter, the variety of norms and ideals which are reflected in just as many different conceptions of democracy are singled out with regard to the respective chapters in this volume. Based on this, also some further thoughts on the topic are elaborated upon and a networked approach is advocated.