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Edited by Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray

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Edited by Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray

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Marshall S. Shapo

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Edited by Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray

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Edited by Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray

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Arno R. Lodder and Andrew D. Murray

The editors of EU Regulation of E-Commerce: A Commentary, Arno R. Lodder and Andrew, introduce the European Union’s long history of investment in, encouragement for, and development of, electronic commerce and the strong, and mostly coherent, regulatory framework for the e-commerce sector. Besides this historical overview, they also discuss the move society has made from the physical to online and back again. Finally, all chapters contained in the book are briefly introduced. Keywords: EU policy, EU e-commerce, online, information society

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Magnus Strand

This first Chapter of the book presents the passing-on problem and identifies the major legal issues triggered by that problem that are discussed throughout the book. ‘Passing-on’ in this respect is the act of letting harm or loss incurred by a business pass through that business and thereby move on to burden its customers, i.e., the next level of the supply chain. This can be done, knowingly or otherwise, by raising selling prices in response to the harm or loss at issue. The point of departure in this chapter and throughout the book is that the passing-on problem is not a single and coherent legal problem that can be addressed as such, but a set of factual circumstances that gives rise, in turn, to several legal issues that need to be resolved in a consistent manner. Three main legal issues triggered by passing-on are identified: (1) Who in the supply chain will have access to court to bring an action in respect of the initial harm caused? (2) Will those parties be able to demonstrate sufficient proximity (within the meaning of applicable substantive law) to the original harmful act or unjustified transaction, as the case may be, to bring a successful claim? (3) Will a possibility for the claimant to pass on the alleged harm or loss be relevant to the estimation of the award? This chapter further identifies the different parties involved in the passing-on problem and their respective interests, introducing shorthand denominators for those parties that are used in the book. Finally the chapter outlines the various EU law contexts in which passing-on has or could occur, and presents the structure of the presentation to follow in subsequent chapters. Keywords: EU law, private enforcement, damages law, restitution law, passing-on, indirect purchasers
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Magnus Strand

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Anne L. Bandle

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Anne L. Bandle