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A European Perspective
Stéphanie De Somer
A European Perspective
Stéphanie De Somer
This chapter introduces a new concept to the literature on ‘agencification’: that of ‘autonomous public bodies’ (APBs). It presents a working definition and briefly discusses its constitutive parts. It explains why there is need for a new umbrella concept in order to provide conceptual clarity in the international and European literature on delegation to bodies that are part of the government apparatus but perform their tasks with a certain degree of political autonomy. Subsequently, the two dynamics or trends central to the book are introduced: ‘EU impulse’ and ‘national restraint’. The role of the law in the development of these movements is addressed. The chapter then explains why there is a need for scholarly attention to APBs that focuses on the European legal sphere specifically. After an outline and overview of the book, its methodological approach is briefly explained. The book’s analysis results from law-finding and hermeneutic activities, like most legal scholarly work, but also includes an evaluative and thus normative approach. The analysis aims to transcend a mere description and interpretation of legal principles and instruments, avoiding, however, the trap of making unscientific value judgements about positive law. The introduction briefly explains how this is achieved.
Ronald W. Coan
A History of American State and Local Economic Development: As Two Ships Pass in the Night presents a three-part history of American state and local economic development since 1789. Part I concentrates on economic development from colonial times thru 1929. Part II deals with a transition era that starts with the Depression/New Deal and proceeds through Eisenhower (1961). Part III lays the foundation for twenty-first-century contemporary economic development focusing primarily thru the 1990s. Chapter 1 argues the need for, and value of, a history of American economic development as a “bottom-up” jurisdictional public policy perspective that views economic development strategy, tools, and programs as outputs of a jurisdictional policy system. The policy system rests on the jurisdictional political culture which shapes but does not determine its outputs. American economic development has displayed through its history the existence of two macro-political cultures: progressivism and privatism—these are the Two Ships. Each culture forged its own “style” or approach to economic development: mainstream/classic economic development (privatism) and community development (progressivism). The Chapter 1 model provides a framework for the history. That framework includes: characteristics of the profession (“onionization,” siloization, and bifurcation); the three drivers of economic development policy (industry/sector profit cycle, population mobility, and competitive hierarchies); and outputs which can be strategies, tools, and programs delivered by economic development organizations (EDOs) constructed, tasked, and empowered to respond to issues and problems generated in the course of the history. In particular, structural types such as “hybrid public–private,” jurisdictional lead agency, and specialized EDOs are key players in jurisdictional policy systems.
John Stanley, Janet Stanley and Roslynne Hansen
What makes for a great city in the 21st century? If one aspires to a vision like that of Vancouver, as we do, what does it actually mean and how can a city best realise its vision? Questions such as these are the reason for this book, focusing on cities in highly developed western economies and working from a perspective that sees the idea of integrated planning as a core starting point. This chapter outlines some of the important trends we have observed in urban land use transport planning in recent years, such as: a growing sustainability focus; more attention being paid to structural economic changes and how they affect the spatial structure of cities; the growing importance of neighbourhood, adding a local lens to strategic planning; the interest in compact settlement patterns and in how knowledge of built form and travel interactions can be used to promote this settlement pattern; putting transport in its place, as a servant of land use, rather than letting it determine wider urban outcomes ; and, an increased interest in governance and funding. Our interest is in identifying how the growing knowledge base in such areas can be brought together more effectively, to deliver better urban outcomes. This underlines the vital role we see for a broader, more integrated approach to strategic urban land use transport planning. Subsequent chapters explore improved practice in some detail, with extensive use of case study material.