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Edited by Colin Fenwick and Valérie Van Goethem

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Preface

Evaluating Privatisation, Regulation and Liberalisation in the EU

Edited by Massimo Florio

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Colin Fenwick and Valérie Van Goethem

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Introduction

A Critical Assessment

Matthias Finger and Kenneth Button

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Massimo Florio

Some regulatory reforms cannot be simply described by the change of a microeconomic signal, or macroeconomic instrument, leading to a specific marginal effect on social welfare. Rather, they should be represented by packages shifting a policy framework. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the theoretical foundations of the evaluation of policy framework reforms in network industries. Some potential interpretational pitfalls are identified and some guidance on carrying out econometric analyses is provided. Since the use of categorical variables has become widespread in the empirical evaluation of such reforms, methodological issues and conceptual errors that might be introduced when building numerical proxies of reforms are discussed. Some of these issues are key for the correct assessment of reforms and hence for formulating coherent policy recommendations.

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Armel Kerrest

Although we have long moved on from a spacefaring environment dominated by the actions of two State powers, modern space law is still centred on the notion of ‘launching States’, including as the basic concept for applying the Liability Convention. This chapter asks whether the legal framework established at the time of adoption of the Liability Convention is still efficient for the regulation of commercial space ventures, in particular by questioning the continuing relevance and definition of the concept of ‘launching State’. This question will be considered in four steps, discussing in turn (1) the importance of the notion of launching States; (2) the interest of holding States liable for damage caused by a space object; (3) the implications of private entities getting involved in this framework; and (4) the entity carrying the risk created by private space activities. Keywords: launching State; liability; private actors

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Jan Wouters, Philip De Man and Rik Hansen

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The two sides of institutional innovation

Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America

Leonardo Avritzer

The introduction defines political/democratic innovation as the capacity of government to express political will and civil society inputs in several formats. Usually, these inputs are linked to the introduction and/or implementation of public policies, through which civil society and the state interact in order to democratize the state itself. It based on this definition that different experiences of innovation will be analysed.

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Introduction: The theory of institutional innovation – an overview

Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America

Leonardo Avritzer

The introduction of the book discusses the state of the art of the theory of institutional innovation and discusses the main theme of the book in the following terms: because there are good reasons to promote innovation but also to stick with a democratic core of norms without which democracy itself may be endangered, the key question is: how can we learn to separate the positive from the negative elements of institutional innovation?

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Introduction

A Comparative Perspective

Christoph Scherrer