Experiencing high levels of poverty and corruption, Nigeria is widely perceived as the quintessential resource cursed country. Yet, the oil exporter nonetheless underwent a democratic transition with its March 2015 elections. The explanation for this puzzle partly lies in the recent fall in oil prices and related government revenues, which limited patronage spending before the elections. Applying a political ecology lens to the case, however, also points towards deeper explanations: the costs and benefits of Nigerian oil extraction have been very unevenly distributed allowing the formation of new, and the destruction of old, political alliances. Keywords: Nigeria, elections, democracy, oil revenues, patronage, capital flight
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Alan D. Hemmings, Klaus Dodds and Peder Roberts
Aled Williams and Philippe Le Billon
Edited by Klaus Dodds, Alan D. Hemmings and Peder Roberts
Chapter 1 scrutinizes the case study of the primary ‘ecoterrorist’ group protecting animals: the Animal Liberation Front (ALF). It sets out a brief history of animal welfare groups, the Hunt Saboteur protest group and the radical environmental group Band of Mercy that predated the ALF, as well as a biography of the group’s charismatic leader Ronnie Lee. The chapter describes the birth of the ALF both in the UK and the USA. It goes on to critically analyse both the ALF’s underlying philosophy and the development of a radical animal rights philosophy that underpinned ALF actions.
General principles of international environmental law provide the theoretical foundation for the development of normative frameworks in international law. In the waste management context, five general principles are particularly relevant: the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources and the duty not to cause transboundary harm; the principle of preventive action; the corresponding principle of cooperation; the principle of sustainable development; and the precautionary principle. Operationalization of these principles in the waste context has led to the development of new principles, such as those of self-sufficiency, proximity, waste minimization, environmentally sound management and prior informed consent, all of which are further operationalized in the detailed rules set out in the Basel Convention and other treaties dealing with waste management. This chapter examines the interpretation and application of these general principles and the role they have played in the development of the international legal regime for the management and transboundary movement of waste.
Andreas R. Ziegler, Katharina Kummer Peiry and Jorun Baumgartner
Edited by Katharina Kummer Peiry, Andreas R. Ziegler and Jorun Baumgartner
No simple adjustment in international law can provide an adequate response to the issues raised by the current debates on “climate migration.” Yet, these discussions could stress the need for structural reforms in global governance in a growingly interdependent world. This introduction presents an overview of the central themes of this book. It introduces the main methodologies and theoretical frameworks that form the general background for the following analysis.