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Joanna R. Quinn
The chapter traces the development of transitional justice (TJ), focusing on four of the most widely used instruments of TJ (criminal prosecutions, reparations, amnesty and truth-telling). It then outlines the development of TJ approaches and instruments around the world. Those same four commonly used instruments are utilized as a means of comparing experiences across continents. Finally, the chapter considers the ‘growing pains’ of the scholarship and practice of transitional justice. The questions raised have arisen because the field has matured to the extent that critical questions can and must be asked. Six of these are considered: deepening international engagement; the effect of contagion; simultaneity and the problems it brings; the call to address economic, social and cultural rights; the limits of what transitional justice can actually address; and the parameters of the transition in question. Origins and development of transitional justice; Europe; Latin America; Sub-Saharan Africa; Asia.
Elizabeth Ferris and Jonas Bergmann
This article explores alternative ways that legal and normative frameworks can be used to uphold the rights of those who are displaced internally or across borders in the context of anthropogenic climate change. In particular, we argue that more efforts should be focused on developing soft law rather than trying to fit those displaced because of the effects of climate change into existing legal frameworks. The present hard law system governing the movement of people is not equipped to handle the complexities of population movements resulting from the effects of climate change, and an adequate transformation of these often static legal regimes is improbable. By contrast, soft law offers a number of advantages particularly well suited to the characteristics of those who move because of the effects of climate change and who currently fall into the gaps between protection frameworks. On the downside, soft law norms are not binding and the multiplicity of such initiatives may contribute to a fragmentation of protection systems, resources and attention. Therefore, the present article concludes by arguing for a two-track approach in which both soft and hard law contributes to the protection of those displaced in the context of climate change. On the one hand, in order to address some of the current protection gaps, existing, emergent and new soft law needs to be used and implemented more thoroughly. At the same time, ways forward also include encouraging the more effective and dynamic implementation of hard law, especially through regionalization, complementary protection and the deployment of some features of emerging climate change regimes.
Edited by Jeanette Schade and Dimitra Manou
The maintenance of international peace and security is the very first purpose of the United Nations. The International Court of Justice, the single most important source of international jurisprudence in this area, has a clear understanding of this goal and of its role in achieving it. From the landmark Corfu Channel case to the seminal Nicaragua case and afterwards, the International Court of Justice has developed a sustainable case law on the use of force in international law, in which the Nicaragua case endures as the single pre-eminent judgment. This chapter considers three key aspects established by the Court’s case law — the illegality of unilateral uses of force by states, the necessary threshold for a use of force to give rise to an entitlement to self-defense, and the complementarity of action by United Nations organs in this field. KEYWORDS: peace and security judgments, International Court of Justice, Nicaragua case, use of force, aggression, self-defense