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Xiaowei Zang and Lucy Xia Zhao

The study of the family and marriage in China is interesting given profound changes in fertility transition, household structure, mate selection, divorce, old age support, and so on, since the nineteenth century. This chapter first reviews the English literature on a few selected aspects of the family institution and marriage in China. Next, it summarizes the outline of each of the chapters, which discuss a wide range of topics including love and marriage, educational endogamy, family planning, son preference, the marriage squeeze, family decision-making power, filial piety and old age support, intermarriage and intercultural dating, international adoption from mainland China, and many more.

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Hans-Uwe Otto, Valerie Egdell, Jean-Michel Bonvin and Roland Atzmüller

In many European countries, a large number of young people aged 15 to 29 years have challenging and complex educational or labour market experiences. Since the 2008 economic crisis, the situation of young people has again deteriorated dramatically in many European countries and in particular in southern and eastern Europe. Employment and training opportunities have reduced, and levels of poverty and social exclusion have increased, not only, but especially, for young people. Thus, the question is emerging as to whether young people are a group at great risk of becoming, being and staying socially disadvantaged. It is this problem of the social disadvantage of young people in Europe in the aftermath of the economic crisis that this volume focuses upon. After having peaked in the immediate years after the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008 and the subsequent sovereign debt crisis in a range of European countries, the unemployment rate in the EU-28 for the 15 to 19 years age group stood at 24.6 per cent,1 for the 20 to 24 years age group at 19.1 per cent, and at 12.4 per cent for the 25 to 29 years age group.2 With the remarkable exception of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, who experienced a temporary peak of youth unemployment in the years preceding the crisis of 2008 (albeit on levels way below the situation in the so-called European periphery), in most European countries youth unemployment had remained relatively stable since the early 2000s – although a high degree of variation between European member states has to be taken into account.

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Analysing inequality and disadvantage from a capability perspective

Fighting Inequality Through Capability Oriented Policy

Jean-Michel Bonvin, Benoît Beuret and Stephan Dahmen

This chapter emphasizes the various possible ways to conceive inequality and disadvantage, as well as the multiplicity of individual, social, economic, cultural, institutional, and so on, dimensions involved. The challenge in terms of public policies is then to select one informational basis of inequality, that is, to identify which dimensions of inequality are to be tackled via public policies and which ones can be discarded as less significant. In this selection process, the participation of vulnerable people, directly affected by disadvantage, makes a huge difference, as it can allow a more adequate identification of the inequalities to be tackled. The chapter sheds light on the complex intricacies between inequality and participation, and emphasizes the prerequisites for a full and effective participation of vulnerable people in the design and implementation of public policies struggling against inequality and disadvantage.

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Edited by Anja R. Lahikainen, Tiina Mälkiä and Katja Repo

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Anja Riitta Lahikainen, Tiina Mälkiä and Katja Repo

The introductory chapter outlines the contents of the volume. The first part of the book maps contemporary family life and child socialization by providing new methodological, theoretical and time-use reflections on media use and media-related child–parent interaction. In addition, it discusses conversation analysis as a method for depicting the complexity of family interaction. This first part utilizes time-use surveys as well as recent theoretical and methodological discussions. The second part of the book reaches into the private zone of family interaction, and provides the reader with detailed interactional analyses of everyday life with media devices. Detailed case studies of various forms of media-related family interaction contribute to understanding new forms of family time, and conflict situations.

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Compensation and other forms of accumulation in intergenerational social inequality

The Role of Compensation and Multiplication in Resource Accumulation

Jani Erola and Elina Kilpi-Jakonen

The aim of this volume is to advance the theoretical and empirical case for compensation as a general mechanism influencing intergenerational social inequality. The volume brings together research on different aspects and types of compensation and covers a number of countries representing different kinds of institutional configurations. This chapter introduces the theoretical basis for compensation and discusses how the study of compensation may give further insights into general processes of intergenerational social inequality. The authors contrast compensation with other mechanisms of resource transfer, namely straightforward accumulation and the multiplication of advantages. They then go further into the different types of compensation and illustrate the kinds of cases in which compensatory processes should be at work. They also discuss how institutions are expected to influence compensation. Finally, they summarize the findings of the empirical chapters that follow and evaluate the extent to which the findings give support for a general theory of compensation, and what the implications are for policy and future research.

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Justine Lloyd and Ellie Vasta

This chapter sets the stage for a new way of thinking about home advanced in this book: home as practised, a process and an event. The chapter gives an overview of ongoing work in sociology and anthropology, as well as housing, migration and cultural studies, that seeks to relativize notions of home. These accounts in turn build on histories of home that have clearly set out the central, yet often unexamined, role that the domestic plays in social life. This challenge to ‘reimagine home’ opens up contemporary social life for new kinds of analysis, as well as offering us a new set of possibilities within which we can make ourselves at home in relation to others. These radical possibilities are explored in case studies by the authors in this book. We demonstrate that thinking differently about home in this way advances our understanding of processes of belonging. We outline how the authors in this collection explore home in relation to the figure of the stranger and publics, as well as with a focus on practices of dwelling and materialities. Through these frameworks, the collection as a whole suggests that our home does not ‘belong’ to us; rather we ‘belong’ to home. Keywords: home, practices of home, public space, belonging, homing practices, place-making, dwelling, relationality

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Edited by Justine Lloyd and Ellie Vasta

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Edited by Daniela Grunow and Marie Evertsson

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Edited by Daniela Grunow and Marie Evertsson

Why do European couples living fairly egalitarian lives adopt a traditional division of labour at the transition to parenthood? Based on in-depth interviews with 334 parents-to-be in eight European countries, this book explores the implications of family policies and gender culture from the perspective of individual couples who are expecting their first child. Couples’ Transitions to Parenthood: Analysing Gender and Work in Europe is the first comparative, qualitative study which explicitly locates couples’ parenting ideals and plans in the wider context of national institutional structures. These structures embody different degrees of congruence between national family policies, employment protection, care provision and the dominant gender culture in the early twenty-first century. The book applies a novel analytical framework to detect these policy-culture gaps which serve as points of reference for the parents-to-be studied in this volume. The book shows how the parents’ agency varied along with the policy-culture gaps in their own countries and provides evidence of their struggle to adapt to, or resist, socially desired paths and patterns of change during the transition to parenthood. Evidence of a misfit between family policy and gender culture is widespread in the interviews in serval of the countries, thus weakening expectant parents’ potential to share paid and unpaid work more equally. The eight country studies in this volume provide novel insights into how dual-earner couples in Europe planned for the division of paid work and care during the transition to parenthood. In addition, three comparative chapters illuminate why transitions to parenthood differed in distinct institutional and situational contexts and why even egalitarian-minded couples often experienced this transition as gendered. The ways in which institutional structures limit possible choices and beliefs about ‘how to do things right’ are linked in ways that often go unnoticed by social scientists, policy makers, and by parents themselves. To elucidate these links is what the editors consider the main contribution of this book. Couples’ Transitions to Parenthood: Analysing Gender and Work in Europe provides: • A unique, comparative and in-depth analysis of transitions to parenthood in contemporary Europe, focusing on Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republic, and Poland • Cutting edge comparative qualitative methodology and innovative combination of macro and micro data • New theoretical insights into the link between structure and agency • Analysis of social policies and their impact on individual parents-to-be