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Edited by Bent Greve
Chapter 1 (by Greve) sets the scene for the book by examining the various definitions of the concepts of evaluation and best evidence and looks at the different models involved. He then presents an overview of the content of the book, which is divided into three parts: I: What Evaluation Is and Examples of Methods, focusing on the definition of evaluation and the different methods; II: Evaluation and Policy, with a focus on evaluation and policy-making; and Part III: Evaluation of Concrete Social Policy Areas, which looks at the present state of the art within different central welfare policies. The chapter ends with a discussion on the book’s limitations.
Jani Erola and Elina Kilpi-Jakonen
The aim of this volume is to advance the theoretical and empirical case for compensation as a general mechanism influencing intergenerational social inequality. The volume brings together research on different aspects and types of compensation and covers a number of countries representing different kinds of institutional configurations. This chapter introduces the theoretical basis for compensation and discusses how the study of compensation may give further insights into general processes of intergenerational social inequality. The authors contrast compensation with other mechanisms of resource transfer, namely straightforward accumulation and the multiplication of advantages. They then go further into the different types of compensation and illustrate the kinds of cases in which compensatory processes should be at work. They also discuss how institutions are expected to influence compensation. Finally, they summarize the findings of the empirical chapters that follow and evaluate the extent to which the findings give support for a general theory of compensation, and what the implications are for policy and future research.
Edited by Ann Numhauser-Henning
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter reviews a wide range of literature on the “sandwich generation.” Women and men in the sandwich generation are caregivers to their young and older children as well as to one or both parents while managing their own household and work responsibilities. Sandwiched individuals report high levels of stress – physical, emotional and financial. Most sandwiched people are in their 50s and 60s. The sandwich generation is projected to grow dramatically over the next 30 years. Employed caregivers need to make work-related adjustments to undertake care. One response is to work fewer hours. Women undertake more caregiving than do men. The sandwich generation is a worldwide phenomenon with wide country differences in the levels and types of support available to caregivers. The caregiving relationship is complex, involving gender of caregiver, parents and parents-in-law, ethnic differences, resident versus non-resident caregivers, and changes in the relationship over time, sometimes involving Alzheimer’s and dementia. But there are benefits to caregivers as well, including improved relationships, using skills and developing new skills, and generously giving to another. Organizations need to address increases in caregiving among their employees and develop policies and initiatives that support these valued employees. Examples of such initiatives are described. There is also a need at the country level to integrate employees, communities, employers, businesses and levels of government to deal with this increasing trend. Key words: definition of sandwich generation, strains and benefits of caregiving, organizational challenges, supportive organization and government interventions.
Justine Lloyd and Ellie Vasta
This chapter sets the stage for a new way of thinking about home advanced in this book: home as practised, a process and an event. The chapter gives an overview of ongoing work in sociology and anthropology, as well as housing, migration and cultural studies, that seeks to relativize notions of home. These accounts in turn build on histories of home that have clearly set out the central, yet often unexamined, role that the domestic plays in social life. This challenge to ‘reimagine home’ opens up contemporary social life for new kinds of analysis, as well as offering us a new set of possibilities within which we can make ourselves at home in relation to others. These radical possibilities are explored in case studies by the authors in this book. We demonstrate that thinking differently about home in this way advances our understanding of processes of belonging. We outline how the authors in this collection explore home in relation to the figure of the stranger and publics, as well as with a focus on practices of dwelling and materialities. Through these frameworks, the collection as a whole suggests that our home does not ‘belong’ to us; rather we ‘belong’ to home. Keywords: home, practices of home, public space, belonging, homing practices, place-making, dwelling, relationality