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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Muchu Zhang and Ruth Hayhoe

The chapter provides a detailed historical analysis of the cultural and global influences on the modernization of China’s basic education, higher education and teacher education. It concludes that Chinese education has grown from its cultural roots, and should explain the educational dimensions of the Confucian heritage to a world that has become increasingly interested in its language, culture and society.

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Noemi Lendvai-Bainton and Patricia Kennett

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W. John Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Daniel Béland and Klaus Petersen

This chapter explores the role of ideas and language in the development of social programmes in Europe and beyond. The first part of the chapter offers a concise and critical overview of the existing literature on ideas and policy change; the second part draws attention on the understudied role of policy language and concepts, which is part of a new, cutting-edge agenda for ideational research. Overall, the chapter points to the impact of historical and transnational processes on policy change and, more specifically, on the development of the ideas and social policy nexus in Europe and elsewhere around the world

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Disability in refugee populations

Forgotten and Invisible?

Mary Crock, Laura Smith-Khan, Ron McCallum and Ben Saul

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Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li

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Thomas David DuBois

This chapter examines the roots of public welfare in China, spanning the crucial 100 years before the 1949 founding of the People’s Republic, and highlighting the political importance of welfare provision across a range of very different Chinese regimes. Rather than attempting to map the contemporary Western understanding of welfare onto history, it presents Chinese ideas and institutions on their own terms. During the late nineteenth century, well-established traditions of State and private charity provision began to transform in the face of new pressures and opportunities, including the arrival of Christian missionary institutions. In the early twentieth century, China was divided into a number of regimes, including the Republic of China, the Communist-held areas and the Japanese client regime in Manchuria. This political fragmentation caused the welfare tradition to diversify into a number of competing ideologies and strategies. The transformation of welfare provision during this century was driven by a number of interrelated processes: the growing influence of foreign actors and institutions; the formation of legal and legislative frameworks for the rights and responsibilities of welfare providers; and the shift in balance between private and State initiative, and between disaster relief and longer-term programmes of economic development. This history continues to tangibly shape contemporary political and social attitudes towards welfare provision.

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An uphill struggle

A Fitness Landscape Model Approach

Lasse Gerrits and Peter Marks