This chapter has a twofold objective. First, it aims to contribute to addressing the fragmentation of the literature on the creative economy, and second, to lay the foundation for an economics of creative industries. Following a bibliometric approach, the authors analyse all publications collected from the ISI Web of Science database, starting from 1998 and ending in 2016. Through the analysis of nearly 1600 publications, they study the evolution of creative economy research (CER). They apply a co-citation analysis developed using social network analysis, thereby exploring the ‘founders’ and ‘disseminators’ of cultural and creative industries (CCIs). Results underline that CCIs are not only the major topic in CER research, but this trend has become stronger in the last few years. In addition, evidence of this work strongly confirms the relevance of CCIs in the contemporary economy. This importance can only be expected to grow in the future. This last result supports the hypothesis concerning the foundation of an economics of creative industries.
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Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone and Niccolò Innocenti
Luciano Lazzeretti and Marilena Vecco
Implications for Regions and Industries
Charlie Karlsson, Andreas P. Cornett and Tina Wallin
Åke E. Andersson and David Emanuel Andersson
The games of markets including entrepreneur-driven economic development have always taken place on an arena of the combined material and non-material infrastructure. The infrastructure thus constitutes the arena; it is public capital that facilitates and constrains the rapid “games” of buying and selling that economic agents play. Agents perceive the arena as stable because its evolution is so much slower than that of markets for goods and services. Synergetic theory is well equipped to handle such multiple timescales. Its application to economic phenomena enables us to show that competitive equilibrium theory requires prior specification of the infrastructural arena, which consists of public knowledge, space-bridging networks and institutions. Synergetic theory can also help us avoid the pitfalls of conventional macroeconomic theory. In this chapter, we demonstrate how macroeconomic equilibrium depends on the infrastructure. We claim that all goods are durable and are thus instances of capital. This means that historical trajectories, current outcomes, uncertain expectations and changes in spatial accessibility all influence the growth and fluctuations in the value of capital goods. Dynamic non-linear interactions between scientists, inventors and entrepreneurs affect investments. New technological or design ideas spread most easily among spatially proximate firms within communication and transport networks. Such network effects shape processes of spatial clustering, agglomeration and urbanization. Based on causal and various econometric considerations, it has been common for economists to resort to difference equation in their modeling strategies. But if we include dynamic interactions within a system of difference equations—so as to accommodate realistic causal assumptions—it will often result in complex models with chaotic outcomes. However, there are ways out of chaos in economic modeling. The first is to focus on continuous dynamic synergetic models, which implies a careful separation of variables and dynamic processes according to their relevant timescales as well as the collectiveness of their impacts.
Thijs ten Raa
The core instrument of input-output analysis is a matrix of technical coefficients. This input-output matrix orders national accounts by interconnecting the use and make statistics of the different sectors, traces indirect economic effects or multipliers, and is used to map environmental impacts or footprints. At all levels there are issues of its dimension, not only size but also type - commodities or industries - and resolution of these issues requires that statisticians, economists (applied and theoretical), and policy analysts (including environmental) familiarize themselves with each other's work. All contribute various chapters of the handbook and these are interrelated in this introductory chapter.