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Paul W. Grimes
Peter A.G. van Bergeijk
Dominic Npoanlari Dagbanja
This chapter is concerned with foreign direct investment and international investment law in Africa. It contributes to an understanding of the nature and scope of international investment law in Africa and the role of development in the making of IIAs in Africa. It highlights the role the search for development has played in the conclusion of bilateral investment treaties and continental and regional international investment agreements (IIAs) in Africa. The chapter argues that investment dispute settlement tribunals have an obligation to take account of the development objective in interpreting African IIAs. Furthermore, the chapter explores the historical and political contexts of investment treaties in Africa. The substantive standards of bilateral and continental and regional investment treaties in Africa as well as national investment laws and policies in Africa are examined.
For a variety of reasons, some of them structural, the conventions and norms of a legal system can never capture and domesticate the concept of justice. Justice always exceeds its application in law. The agony of the law is that the tools of the law cannot do justice to justice. Many legal systems fail to deliver the shallow justice they promise. The conceptions of deep justice within a legal system conflict and can be incoherent. Constructing a critique of law from the true justice of a utopia is totalitarian. Confining oneself to an immanent critique fails to recognize when revolutionary change is required. Augustine founded his critique of the Pax Romana in a transcendental true justice which could not be fully instantiated. Critical natural law theory focuses on the victims of injustice, it regards law is imperfectible, but seeks relative movements towards truer justice.
Responding to the UK government’s “Women in Finance Charter” (2016) which commits signatory financial services firms to gender balance at all levels, this chapter investigates the desirability and feasibility of achieving these aims. It begins with a brief review of the UK financial services industry and the case which has been made for more women in management within this sector. This is followed by a review of literature offering explanations (theories) for the underrepresentation of women in senior management roles. Adopting a multi-disciplinary perspective, this review is organized into three groups: career preference perspective, the work–family perspective, and the gender bias and stereotype perspective. Focusing on the relative proportions of men and women who progress from graduate intake into senior roles, the chapter concludes by rehearsing some future (controversial?) scenarios for achieving “fair gender balance” within UK financial services.