In a short span of time, China has assembled many of the trappings of a global power. With every major foreign policy initiative, such as the Belt & Road Initiative and the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, China seems to be moving closer to realizing its great power ambition. This chapter discusses the following questions: Will China replace the United States as the dominant power? What challenges does China face on its path to becoming a global power? What internal and external factors have contributed to changes and continuities in Chinese foreign policy? How does the international community view China’s rise? What are the challenges China faces in its pursuit of the “Chinese dream”? How can China and the international community work together to ensure China will be a peaceful, responsible, and respectable global power?
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China began its rapid economic growth following the implementation of the Economic Reform and Opening Up policy of 1978. The Southern tour talks by former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1992 sped up the country’s economic development and made it more open. China was admitted as a member of the World Trade Organization in 2001 and has since become the world’s second-largest economic power. After its extraordinary economic performance depending on exports and cheap labor over the past 40 years, China must change its economic model to drive sustainable economic development. Innovation has become the keyword and the most crucial element for the economic model shift. China has clearly embarked upon innovation-driven growth. This chapter surveys China’s goal of becoming a nation of innovation by 2020, and analyzes China’s initiatives to promote innovation. China is pursuing more innovative activities and is innovating at a larger scale. The chapter discusses the grassroots innovation movement, including the startup boom and regional advanced cases, and emphasizes that China’s innovations are going global with more ventures going abroad. At the same time, it explores the challenges faced by China as it tries to position innovation as a national strategy.
In 2016, the global economy continued to revive slowly. Global outbound direct investment (ODI) declined within a narrow range. In the investment areas, ODI mainly turned to the developed regions of Asia, Europe, and America, particularly in the service industry sector. Investment trends centered on cross-border mergers and acquisitions, and greenfield investment growth was underpowered. Although international investment policies tended to be free and convenient, several developed countries intensified the supervision and restriction measures on outbound investment. However, Chinese companies were upstream in outbound investment, and created new historical records in 2016. Chinese companies preferred developed countries when choosing investment areas. Investors showed diversification development trends of “state-owned and privately owned enterprises advancing together.” Investment methods focused on mergers and acquisitions. Investment in the manufacturing industry grew strongly. The overall industrial chain layout, strategies based on local conditions, and the start of brand strategy were new features of the outward expanding companies. This chapter discusses eight significant challenges that Chinese companies faces in overseas development and proposes countermeasures and suggestions. It provides readers with a general view of global outbound investment and the development status and features of Chinese companies “going-out.”
Wu Xiangning and You Ji
The South China Sea dispute has been structured into a grand geostrategic rivalry between the major powers and as a result almost dominated China–US bilateral relations in recent years, apart from economic and trade disputes. This seems likely to continue under the Trump administration which has taken, from the beginning, a strong stand against Chinese claims in the South China Sea disputes. The tension between the two countries may rapidly escalate if their naval vessels confront each other when US warships continue to sail within 12 nautical miles of the Chinese-held islands and features. The focus of the SCS disputes is no longer the interaction among the various Asian claimants. The SCS issue has been increasingly utilized by powers as a mechanism to exploit one of China’s most serious strategic and diplomatic vulnerabilities. In this context the shape of Sino–US relations will determine the future direction of South China Sea dispute management.
Bo Liang, Li Yan, Gary Quinlivan and Thomas W. Cline
As the largest emergent market and second largest economy, China is playing an important role in the global economy. China is transitioning from a major investment destination to one of the leading global investors. The United States is the top choice of international investment. Over the past five years, Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) in the United States has been surging with a focus on the sectors of real estate, high-technology, new energy, and entertainment. This chapter explores China’s FDI in the United States by presenting background information on global FDI and China’s global outward direct investment (ODI), and examining China’s FDI in the United States at the industry and company levels. It also discusses the implications of China’s rapidly increasing ODI and provides recommendations for how to make the process constructive for both China and the United States. This chapter can also be a valuable resource for other countries facing radical FDI increase from China.
Dickie Liang-Hong Ke and Enrique de Diego
This chapter discusses the current status of innovation and entrepreneurship in China, especially in the TMT (technology, media, and telecommunications) sector, and the journey of Chinese innovation going abroad. Although China was until recently perceived as the land of counterfeiting, particularly in the software and telecommunications sectors, over the last decade there has a dramatic increase of Chinese success stories related to innovation. China has made significant technological progress and Chinese enterprises have invested heavily in technological companies in Europe and in the United States. This chapter explores the reasons for this shift towards innovation and evaluates the benefits that Chinese innovation may bring to the world. The authors review three historical periods in China with different approaches to innovation and then discuss five examples of Chinese companies in the TMT sector which are showing the world China’s powerful new role in innovation and entrepreneurship. The chapter discusses the phenomenon of new startups and the many “unicorn” enterprises which are now competing both with each other and with other countries. The chapter concludes with the authors’ insights on where China is going with this shift back to innovation, and present their view on the potential impact that this may bring to the world in the next couple of decades.
The history of the Chinese intelligence services is largely unknown. The aim of this chapter is to examine those services, in all their diversity (including the Second Department of the People’s Liberation Army’s General Staff Department, Central Investigation Department, and International Liaison Department, both depending on the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, and the Ministry of State Security), and their operations in Africa. Largely based on unedited Western intelligence sources completed by specified scholars’ work, this chapter offers an image largely different from what media generally suggests. Two periods of activity thus appear, one influencing the other in its forms. The first corresponds to China’s desire to appear as a revolutionary power (1958–64). The second opens in 1999 and merges with Africa’s race to China. The operational principles adopted in support of the national liberation movements are still those that are in operation today in the approach of China’s intelligence services in Africa: diplomatic competition with Taiwan, and preventing the appearance of a new actor in the Indian Ocean (yesterday the Soviet Union, today India).
Mrinal Ghosh, Kellilynn M. Frias and Robert F. Lusch
In this chapter the authors introduce a question of significant import to marketing managers: Where should their firm locate their offerings in the value chain? We term this concept as product-form strategies and using the service-dominant logic aver that the four principal product-form strategies, viz. sell intellectual know-how, sell intermediate components, sell final goods, or sell service solutions derived from the goods, are alternative ways in which firms can offer service to end-users. The authors first illustrate these product-form alternatives through a variety of examples and then draw on the literature in service-dominant logic and organizational economics to develop a framework that suggests the key underlying mechanisms that determine when and why firms choose one alternative product-form over another. Finally, the authors provide insights on how these choices impact marketing decisions throughout the value chain.
Having dominated the discipline since its professionalization at the end of the nineteenth century, the standard of civilization gradually lost its predominance after the Second World War and came to be seen as an embarrassing anachronism, largely inconsequential for contemporary international law. This chapter challenges this conventional narrative about the gradual demise of the standard of civilization. It does so in conversation with critical historiographies of international law, including the work of Antony Anghie, Martti Koskenniemi and China Miéville. First, the chapter provides a brief history of ‘civilization’, emphasizing that its disappearance as an explicit concept was accompanied by its metastasis in the grammar of international law, the discipline’s structures and patterns of argumentation. Second, it seeks to systematize the meaning and functions of ‘civilization’, pointing both at its transformations over time and at its continuing entanglement with the logic and contradictions of the capitalist mode of production.
This chapter analyzes the challenges encountered by clinical legal education (CLE) as a new methodology of legal education in a traditional law school. CLE indisputably combines educational and social ends in win–win relations. This concept incorporates practical experience, concomitant skill enhancement and a critical approach into law students’ university training. The praxis serves the higher understanding of law and the legal profession, as well as the social needs relating to remedying deficiencies of legal services. The chapter attempts to understand the structural and institutional pitfalls which resulted in repudiating the incorporation of clinics into the organizational structure of the law school. CLE faced multiple adversities when it sought to increase teaching and learning opportunities that extend elitist university goals toward a broadened mission of enhancing social justice. The chapter highlights the determinative role of the law school in the production of loyal elites, and points out the fragility of the independence and autonomy of tertiary education.