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Governing Compact Cities

How to Connect Planning, Design and Transport

Philipp Rode

Governing Compact Cities investigates how governments and other critical actors organise to enable compact urban growth, combining higher urban densities, mixed use and urban design quality with more walkable and public transport-oriented urban development. Philipp Rode draws on empirical evidence from London and Berlin to examine how urban policymakers, professionals and stakeholders have worked across disciplinary silos, geographic scales and different time horizons since the early 1990s.
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Integrated urban governance and its institutions

How to Connect Planning, Design and Transport

Philipp Rode

This chapter presents a theoretical discussion on planning and policy integration and introduces several general perspectives that emerged from the empirical investigation in the two case study cities London and Berlin. The chapter features a discussion of the links between institutional arrangements, policy capacity and outcomes and then moves to the critical role of integrated urban governance for implementing compact urban growth. This chapter also covers broader perspectives related to integration and holistic governance, the central definitions and the operationalisation of planning and policy integration, and presents the framework of integration mechanisms. The second half of this chapter discusses three broader perspectives that emerged from the analysis of the two case study cities. These concern the central question about the role of hierarchical structures and networks in facilitating integration, the impact of institutional change itself and the privileging of specific integration content as part of integrated planning and policymaking.

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London: urban governance with a new centre

How to Connect Planning, Design and Transport

Philipp Rode

This chapter broadly mirrors the same structure and discussions of Chapter 4 for the case of London. The first section, on changes to the city’s governance structure, introduces governance scales and political representation in London and focuses in particular on the impact of the creation of a Greater London Authority with a directly elected Mayor of London. Inevitably, this involves a discussion of the role of leadership in facilitating integration, which is complemented by observations of whether and how network integration has balanced more centralised and hierarchical coordination mechanisms. The second and third sections on planning processes, instruments and enabling conditions more directly follow the same discussion as presented for Berlin.

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The Mobilities Paradox

A Critical Analysis

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

The theory of mobilities has gained great recognition and traction over recent decades, illustrating not only the influence of mobilities in daily life but also the rise and expansion of globalization worldwide. But what if this sense of mobilities is in fact an ideological bubble that provides the illusion of freedom whilst limiting our mobility or even keeping us immobile? This book reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the mobilities paradigm and in doing so constructs a bridge between Marxism and Cultural theory.
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Paolo Novak

At first glance borders and boundaries seem to be unambiguously spatial objects. Paolo Novak, however, considers three decades of assistance for Afghan refugees in Pakistan through a temporal lens, drawing attention to the changing rate of labour and refugee flows, the differentiated temporal experience of boundary-crossing and the coming into being of boundary lines themselves. His key concept is rhythm. The chapter not only assesses the temporal aspects of the Durand Line (the linear marker separating Afghanistan and Pakistan), but also the River Indus, which at this point forms the boundary between Islamabad and Peshawar provinces within Pakistan. Novak uses Lefebvre’s idea of rhythmanalysis to provide a critical interpretation of three familiar concepts: time–space compression, border biographies and the refugee cycle regularly used in border studies. In each case this novel reading of a familiar idea reveals a diverse set of experiences of time and space. For example, while border biographies can vividly identify key moments in the life of a border, these temporal breaks need to be set against various other temporalities (of the world-system, of regional trade, of national interventions) to be understood. The concept of rhythm developed here usefully depicts the dynamic and hierarchical nature of an uneven social field by drawing attention to the multiplicity of different tempos that can be heard simultaneously – beats that are distinct but related and which, together, produce the vast unity that we seek to disentangle. Keywords: rhythm, time–space compression, border biographies, refugee cycles, Afghanistan, Pakistan

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Melanie Griffiths

Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of time for structuring social experience, and of the considerable variation of perceptions of time between people and across social contexts, migration scholars have long neglected the temporal dimension. This chapter addresses the neglect by examining changing temporal conditions, restrictions and opportunities embedded in British immigration regulations affecting ‘deportable’ migrants. It will argue that the immigration legislation and Ministers draw on multiple senses of time: from bureaucratic, measurable time to a phenomenological sense of lived time; a linear progressive time; monstrously circular time; and as a commodity that can be accumulated, lost and stolen. The chapter will argue that the immigration rules operate through ‘temporal governance’ evident, for example, in the numerous and complicated temporal hurdles that serve to make possible, or instantly nullify, immigration applications. It will also suggest that the importance of lived time, acknowledged through the rights to respect of one’s private and family life, is increasingly devalued and delegitimised in favour of less ‘democratically’ available considerations. Keywords: immigration regulations, deportation, bureaucratic time, lived time, temporal governance, UK

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Ben Page

This chapter makes a conceptual leap from James Joyce’s Ulysses to Bergson’s notion of duration in order to finally discuss an ethnographic moment during a meal in Cameroon and, in that journey, to connect food to migrant subjectivity and self-actualization. It argues that this conceptual lens can be of value to breaking down the idea that the timespace of the migrant-subject has any essential boundary marked by an inside/outside that is contiguous with the space of the subject’s body and a beginning/end that is contemporaneous with the times of the subject’s ‘migration’. This is an immersion into the interactive field that food studies and migration studies offer with mnemonic, embodied and temporally constituted elements of becoming that unfold through the flow of experience. Following Bergson, the analysis explores two types of time: spatialized time (associated with the intellect) and real time (or duration), which is associated with intuition. In this context the emotional aspirations of becoming and being are captured in and through movement and the rhythms, affective energies and the forces that embodiment entails when the mundane actions of everyday life such as preparing and consuming food are disaggregated into life-journeys, migrant-journeys and journeys for research. Thus movement here becomes a vessel for subject formation, but challenges any sense of the spatial co-incidence of subject and body through these snapshots of imagined, social and research life. Keywords: food, time, duration, becoming, subjectivity, Cameroon

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Edited by Elizabeth Mavroudi, Ben Page and Anastasia Christou

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The Global Energy System

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

There is a long precedent of transnational energy systems due to the spatial disparities between the locations of production and consumption. Within primary energy supply an extensive global system of distribution has emerged for primary energy sources, notably oil and gas, as many developed states have sought to ensure their energy security. As such there are strong pressures for integration within the global energy systems. These market-based pressures are also driven by other forces linked into these forces such as hegemonic power and international governance. However, there are also forces for fragmentation within the global energy system based on a mix of geo-politics, national political concerns and the uneven development of energy infrastructure.

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The Global Information Infrastructure System

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

Arguably the global information infrastructure (GII) arguably demonstrates the highest degree of globality of all the economic infrastructures under consideration within this research. The GII itself is a modular concept consisting of a multitude of technologies. At the core of the spread of the GII is the internet. This technology has an embedded globality from its outset and access to it is seen as a key barometer of the economic development. This process has been supported by the development of an extensive oceanic cable system. However, this embedded globality is increasingly being challenged as many starts to restrict access to or movements of data. This has been shaped by the growing narratives on the so-called ‘splinternet’.