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Global Infrastructure Networks

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

Infrastructure represents the core underpinning architecture of the global economic system. Adopting an approach informed by realism, this insightful book looks at the forces for the integration and fragmentation of the global infrastructure system. The authors undertake a thorough examination of the main internationalised infrastructure sectors: energy, transport and information. They argue that the global infrastructure system is a network of national systems and that state strategies exert powerful forces upon the form and function of this system.
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The Global Transport Infrastructure System

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

This chapter investigates the main trends in global transportation infrastructure by initially examining how these state-based physical structures are adapting to global flows across the main forms of passenger and freight transportation. It is evident across each of the sectors that there are substantial forces for infrastructural integration. These are created by a series of forces, many of which lie on the soft infrastructure side of the global transportation system (such as trade facilitation, service liberalisation, etc.). As such, the forces for integration are suggestive of enabling flows to which national systems respond. However, these integrative forces are limited by variability in soft and hard infrastructure systems (both natural and man-made) which limit the fluidity of transport flows between and across NIS.

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Infrastructure and Territoriality

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

Infrastructuring is core to understanding state territoriality. It is the provision of the physical structures that are central to understanding the control that states seek to assert over their territory. This infrastructuring strategy is contextualised in terms of a defined infrastructural mandate which identifies the multi-functional role that infrastructure plays in state territoriality. The infrastructural mandate stresses that states seek a National Infrastructure System to perform a number of functions, namely to offer territorial integration, security, control and growth.

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Ben Page, Anastasia Christou and Elizabeth Mavroudi

This chapter argues that (despite some important exceptions) time, timing and temporality remain under-analysed in migration studies. It suggests that filling this gap is not just a question of rounding out the academic field, but that a focus on time has particular merits for developing distinctive insights into migrants’ own understandings of their own experiences. The chapter sets out the aim of the book, which is to critically assess the value of analysing international migration through a framework of time, space and timespace. It traces a journey from a focus on time to a focus on timespace, and on to a focus on time again. It argues that the critique of a hierarchy of separated time and space (which was at the centre of the emergence of the concept of timespace) has now been largely internalized so that, at this point, there is merit in reflecting on the differences between time and space through a plurality of conceptual frameworks. Keywords: time, timespace, temporality, space, international migration, migration studies

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The nature of the Global Infrastructure System

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

State-based National Infrastructure Systems (NIS) is undergoing a process of adaptation shaped by the forces of globality. This globality is generating a global infrastructure system based on the interaction between NIS. This global system of interacting national infrastructure has the potential to impact upon state territoriality through the conduit offered by the infrastructural mandate. In analysing this process the chapter identifies that interaction between NIS occurs through three potential channels. The first is direct cross-border interaction (which normally occurs across contiguous space). The second is through third party (transit) infrastructure, which is especially a concern where a state is landlocked or requires long-distance transmission systems (such as pipelines) across third-party states. The third is transmission across the global commons.

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Jørgen Carling

This chapter examines the spatio-temporal constitution of families from Cape Verde that are divided by migration. How does transnational family life unfold in time and space, and how does it matter to questions of power, agency and experience? The chapter starts from the premise that time and space are inseparable aspects of the transnational, but makes the case for addressing the two in contrasting ways. Time should be appreciated as a linear and measurable dimension, even as other perspectives dominate the temporal turn in migration research. Space, by contrast, should not be seen primarily as an abstract dimension, since the spatial aspect of migration and transnationalism is primarily about engagement with specific places. These arguments underpin a view of mobility as separations and unifications with people and places, rather than as movement across space. The chapter refers to this as ‘relative mobility’ and shows how it produces conjunctures at specific times in transnational lives. The analysis draws upon a study of childhood and motherhood in Cape Verdean families, and makes connections from the time-geography of Torsten Hägerstrand to contemporary research on transnationalism. Keywords: transnational families, time geography, linear time, place, relative mobility, Cape Verde

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Reflections on the Global Infrastructure System

The Trans-national Strategy and Policy Interface

Colin Turner and Debra Johnson

This chapter brings together the themes addressed within the previous chapters to over conclusions as the state and pressures/processes within the global infrastructure system. In reflecting how there is an evident nexus between the state infrastructuring and territoriality, it is also apparent that National Infrastructure Systems are adapting to the pressures acting upon them by the forces of globalization. However, seeking to balance territorial requirements of the National Infrastructure System with globalization has led to a sustained (and, in some cases, a newly emergent) fragmentation of the global system.

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Hila Zaban

The chapter introduces a case study that is distinctive not only because it is empirically unfamiliar, but also because it runs against the grain of many migration stories in which people move from poorer parts of the world to richer ones. Instead it looks at the movement of affluent Jews who are leaving ‘the West’ (in particular France) and moving to the Jerusalem neighbourhood of Baka. Whilst Zaban acknowledges that the resources of these households mean that they appear to move freely of their own accord, she also argues that such flows are actually highly constrained and in some ways determined by social structures in both the sending and receiving countries. For example, the role played by the organisations in Israel that support new migrants or the legislative rules around taxation in Israel mean that what appears to be an individual’s choice is not made in a vacuum but in a context where certain ‘choices’ become far more likely than others. This dialogue between choice and constraint becomes particularly pertinent to the themes of this book when it illustrates how the choices of one generation become the constraints of another in Baka. So the space of the study can only possibly be understood through addressing stories of how it has changed over time: time, space, structure and agency swirl together in the production of stories about place and mobility. Thus the Arab housing stock in Baka ‘abandoned’ in the 1940s appeals to the first generation of incomers because it is seen as authentically Middle Eastern. It becomes ripe for gentrification by immigrants in the 1970s, and this gentrification in turn limits who can afford to move to Baka in the current day. Equally, the temporalities of immigration to Israel are shaped by Israeli military activity in the Middle East that produces a less comfortable context for Jews in the West. The moment when people move to Israel to escape hostility in Paris is produced by events in Israel itself – the chapter shows how the timing and spacing of migration is hard to separate when considered over generations. Keywords: choice, constraint, gentrification, inter-generational change, structuration, Israel

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Francis L. Collins and Sergei Shubin

This chapter explores the links between migration, temporality and subjectivity, and provides a critical analysis of the standard treatment of time in the study of international student mobility, which is usually understood in terms of maximising utility in the future by moving across a measurable grid of time and space in the present. In contrast, this chapter seeks out the complex, unexpected and ineffable experiences of temporality among young people on the move. Building their argument from Heidegger’s Being and Time, Collins and Shubin seek to move beyond linear and compartmentalised accounts of time by claiming that human being is constituted by different temporalities simultaneously. Such an examination draws out the temporal complexity whereupon age/life stage, mobility and the development of skills and competences are all seen in a broader focus and in coexistence with futures, pasts and presents of migrants. In this framing the authors highlight a discussion that moves beyond the principles of utility maximisation in which students are perceived to be undertaking journeys with the goal of achieving strategic objectives. Hence, a temporal complexity can reveal the salience of subjectivity in mobility; and, by extension, student migrants can be understood as undergoing processes of becoming, transformative and expressive of ambiguity which may entail anxiety and uncertainty. However, as the authors underscore, the latter need not be unproductive affects. Keywords: international students, mobilities, non-linear time, subjectivity, becoming, affect

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Jennifer McGarrigle and Eduardo Ascensão

This chapter explores the spatial and temporal dimensions that shape migrant lived experience in the context of Lisbon, Portugal. In particular it analyses the temporary character of migration, work and movement. The chapter focuses on onward migration as a complex process of mobility encompassing the interplay between the structures of migration governance and migrant agency in terms of temporal emplacement. The analysis is grounded on two time threads following Ingold’s (1993) separate but intertwined divisions of time, that is, biographical/historical and everyday time. The biographical timespace of the aspirational trajectories of (predominantly) Muslim migrant men from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan contributes to creating the particularities of the conditions that play out in the everyday timespace of Lisbon in an era of economic crises. The authors’ findings point to pathways of rupture and discontinuity in flow, fragmented between different places and the entanglements of the two time threads. This further points to the tensions and interactions between the two time threads, and hence the inherent multiplicity of timespace in migration processes. Keywords: temporary migration, onward migration, migration governance, migrant agency, urban space, Portugal