This chapter analyses a range of materials, including a dataset of 117 investment cases with environmental components compiled by the author, and derives from them three main trends: (1) the increasing role of private investment in sustainable development instruments, particularly the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda; (2) the increasing reference to environmental considerations in IIAs, particularly FTAs; and (3) the surge in investment disputes with environmental components in the recent past. The main conclusion is that environmental considerations are increasingly mainstreamed in the reasoning of investment tribunals, which in turn requires a full integration of environmental law in transactional, prelitigation and litigation practice relating to foreign investment law.
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Sadaat Ali Yawar and Stefan Seuring
The social dimension of sustainable development is gaining importance in the sustainability debate. Managing social issues in supply chains improves the economic as well as sustainability performance of the buyers and suppliers. The aim of this chapter is to explain the management of social issues by taking into account the topics that intersect social issues, responsible supply chain actions in relation to corporate social responsibility (CSR), and its impact on the performance outcomes. In doing so, a number of social issues and their related responsible supply chain actions that are required to manage these social issues are identified. Simultaneously, implications on the performance of buyers and suppliers are also elaborated. The identified social issues vary from labour issues to human rights, which affect not only the firms but also society in general. Similarly, to manage the social issues firms adopt responsible supply chain actions ranging from communication and compliance to supply development strategies. A detail account of each of these is provided in this chapter. This chapter contributes to the understanding of managing social issues in supply chains by linking social issues, responsible supply chain actions and performance outcomes. It presents a consolidated view of the research pertaining to the management of social issues in supply chains and provides an overarching conceptual framework.
Anton Malkin and Bessma Momani
This chapter examines China’s growing institutional linkages with the International Monetary Fund (IMF/Fund) through the lens of China’s history of advocacy and support for the Fund as a central institution in global monetary governance. We suggest that China’s demands for international monetary system (IMS) reform are long-standing, dating back to the 1980s, and that they culminated with China’s currency, the renminbi (RMB) joining the Special Drawing Rights basket of currencies in 2016 and other burgeoning avenues for cooperation between Beijing and IMF staff and management. We find that the IMF has benefited from China’s support for the organization and has moved to more actively support Beijing in its foreign economic policy efforts, including RMB internationalization and the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative. We suggest that the Fund, as an international organization, has found cooperation with Beijing to be useful in addressing its own waning legitimacy in global governance.
Mehjabeen Rahman, Adam Wellstead and Michael Howlett
The application of social and political theories will be important in understanding adaptation processes in complex socio-ecological systems. There have been some promising approaches such as place-based research, social learning, adaptive co-management, vulnerability assessment, adaptive capacity, and resilience. However, these all fall short because they are often too abstract, prematurely inform research inquiries and cannot adequately address the root causes of complex problems. From the policy sciences, policy capacity, however, is a multi-dimensional meso-level perspective that can assist researchers in understanding individual, organizational and systemic-level dynamics inherent in many emerging social theories. Specifically, the more granular policy capacity lens is offered as approach to unpacking the popular notion of adaptive capacity. A content analysis using NVivo qualitative software is employed to assess the nascent role of policy capacity concept in 152 Canadian and United States environmental-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation frameworks.
From 2009 until 2014, conditions for the use of the Chinese renminbi (RMB) as a new international reserve asset were quite favorable. The US dollar was losing luster as a store of value just as the RMB was growing in attractiveness on this front. Additionally, use of the RMB as a trade settlement currency was quickly on the rise. Taken together, these two trends helped to increase demand for assets in China’s currency among central banks. Then, the wind changed direction. The RMB suffered two years of steady depreciation in 2015 and 2016 while the dollar rebounded. The RMB’s use as a trade settlement currency also fell during that period as a slowing Chinese economy and increased RMB volatility hampered its use. As a result, the RMB’s attractiveness as a reserve currency has faded somewhat. Central bank interest in the RMB as a reserve currency is likely to slow in the near term, though the effects may endure for longer.
Charbel Jose Chiappetta Jabbour and Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour
The objective of this chapter is to present the fundamentals of green human resource management (GHRM) for adopting environmentallysustainable supply chain management, also known as green supply chain management (GSCM). This chapter aims to: (1) present the main premises of GHRM; (2) present the main premises of GSCM; (3) argue in favour of integrating these two emerging fields of knowledge; (4) demonstrate how these two fields of knowledge can be related, based on a synergistic and integrative framework. Such integration is highly relevant, because supply chain management initiatives are heavily dependent on aspects of human resource management. This chapter presents the essentials of this field of knowledge, as well as cutting-edge research results.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of IHL by highlighting the major delimitations specific to this branch of public international law. The rules mentioned in this overview will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 8 on IHL’s protective regimes, while specific delimitations, their impact and related controversies will be discussed further in Chapter 6 on IHL’s scope of application as well as in Chapter 7 addressing the differences and similarities between IHL of IACs and IHL of NIACs.
During the past several decades, there has been a growing awareness of the crucial role that entrepreneurship plays in the place-commodification of destinations. In particular, entrepreneurship can play a pivotal role in the early stages of tourism development but also during the maturation stage when large externallyfunded organizations can provide the capital to implement major innovations. These varied entrepreneurial processes tend to involve the creation and development of new business opportunities in tourism, and are often viewed through a Schumpeterian lens of “creative destruction” and innovation.Good examples of small-scale entrepreneurship can be found in the recent emergence of farm tourism, homestays, ecotourism and adventure tourism. By contrast, major innovations can be found in the way the transnational airline and hotel industry now employs information technology through e-ticketing or in developing various strategic alliances. More recently, attention has focused on “lifestyle-oriented small tourism” (LOST) firms that do not conform to conventional economic expectations, and that serve various niche markets created by the demand for specialized tourism products. These so-called LOST entrepreneurs are motivated less by profit and are frequently more focused on maintaining a particular lifestyle or way of life. However, in spite of the growing interest in tourism entrepreneurship, the research agenda remains fragmented and partial, with substantive gaps (Shaw 2014). The chapter aims to partially remedy this problem by highlighting the key research issues that need to be addressed in this field in the coming years. An emphasis is placed on summarizing the key research trajectories, focused on how a geographic perspective can help contribute to a better understanding of tourism entrepreneurship relative to the larger field of tourism studies.
Charles A.E. Goodhart, M. Udara Peiris and Dimitrios P. Tsomocos
We study a monetary economy with two large open economies displaying net real and financial flows. If default on cross-border loans is possible, taxing financial flows can reduce its negative consequences. In doing so it can improve welfare unilaterally, in some cases in a Pareto sense, via altering the terms of trade and reducing the costs of such default.