This chapter evaluates the literature on talent management and establishes key trends in the research. It differentiates research that treats talent as a subject (where every individual’s strengths should be harnessed for the organisation’s benefit, the motivational effects associated with being classified as talent, and the attention that must therefore be given to the role of objective, fair, and transparent processes of identification), and research that treats talent as an object (where attention is given to the ability, competence, performance, and behaviours of a subset of the workforce that makes them comparatively more important than everyone else in terms of the value they add to corporate performance). It argues that by looking at the interplay between critical roles and talent in isolation, we can avoid the limitations of early research that segmented employees. It identifies three trends that will drive the talent agenda: the interface of talent management and performance management; the importance of context in talent management research; and how to engage this talent and maximise their contribution and rewards for sustainable organisation performance.
Wayne F. Cascio, John W. Boudreau and Allan H. Church
The chapter applies a risk optimisation lens and reframes talent management systems in ways that hedge risk and uncertainty. It uses the notion of human capital risk – uncertainty arising from changes in a wide variety of workforce and people-management issues that affect a company’s ability to meet its strategic and operating objectives. It examines the use of future scenarios to alleviate risks, and the concept of potential. It highlights two implications for practice: what this means for measuring candidate “potential”; and what the implications are for the ownership rights and decision accountability for talent development. It uses a Leadership Potential framework to demonstrate how organisations might take a more comprehensive and holistic view to framing the identification and prediction of future leadership success. It calls for four developments: improved HR information/talent management systems, databases, and managerial tools for planning different staffing scenarios and downstream implications; changes in the mindsets of leaders, the culture of organisations, reward systems, accountability; changes in our concepts of what talent management and succession planning are supposed to be about; and changes in the capabilities of HR professionals.
Helen Shipton, Veronica Lin, Karin Sanders and Huadong Yang
The chapter examines the relationship between innovation and HRM, through the literature on recognising, leveraging and releasing the creative and innovative behaviours of employees across specialisms, and across levels of the hierarchy. It develops a four-stage conceptualisation of innovation: problem identification; idea generation; idea evaluation; and implementation. It identifies two areas that would benefit from more focused research. First, distinguishing between environments where creativity and innovation is overtly required, as opposed to job roles where creative outcomes, while valuable, are not expressly called for as part of the job. Second, examining the effect that HRM has on individual creativity (idea generation) and the more collective process of innovation implementation. It examines the process of bottom-up emergence, and the ways in which HRM can support and underpin employees’ efforts not just to generate ideas, but also to work with others to foster their implementation.
The chapter examines the issue of workplace health and well-being. It explains how human capital reporting standards may help HR functions function account for the value of their employees and their collective knowledge, skills, abilities and capacity to develop and innovate. It argues that we need to broaden the meaning of well-being beyond its traditional and legislative concerns with health status from a medical perspective, and include job demands, control, role clarity, security, pay and equity, and wider factors such as co-workers, HR practices, and aspects of the workplace environment more generally. It examines the evidence from systematic reviews of flexible working to reveal a series of paradoxes facing HRM practitioners and examines some of the ways in which organisations can prevent and address the occurrence of ill health and promote health, well-being and performance. It addresses questions about responsibilities for this, and the choice of processes to monitor, address and modify workplace policies, practices and job characteristics.
Kathrin J. Hanek
This chapter reviews literatures on different groups of individuals –Adult Third Culture Kids (ATCKs), monoculturals, and biculturals – in the context of working globally. As people work in and are exposed to new cultures in an increasingly global world, individual differences emerge in the ways in which these experiences become incorporated into the person – from belonging to and identifying with no culture, identifying with one culture, or identifying with two or more cultures. Drawing from psychological research and empirical work in the management literatures, this chapter first provides an overview of the complexities around defining identity in a global context among these groups. Individual differences in identity patterns and identity management strategies, in turn, have been linked to divergent outcomes. Focusing here on outcomes related to adjustment broadly defined, this chapter highlights in particular cultural adaptation as well as interpersonal relationships and behavioural (creativity and decision-making) consequences relevant in a global work context. Mediating the relationship between identity and these consequences, this chapter discusses the role of cognitive mechanisms identified in the literatures. This chapter thus aims to integrate findings across various literatures on these different groups of individuals to present an identity–processes–adjustment framework for understanding how individual differences in identity patterns and identity management strategies produce different adjustment outcomes in the context of working globally. Using this framework, this chapter lastly discusses practical implications, such as expatriate training to prepare various types of individuals for overseas assignments, and provide some future directions for the field.
In this chapter I explore the use of case studies in expatriate management research and signal some of its potential advantages and challenges. I demonstrate why case studies are a valuable resource for understanding expatriates by drawing on published work in the field. Case studies of expatriates conducted in different national, industry and organizational contexts are examined as examples of ‘best practice’ and platforms for future research. The chapter also addresses the criteria for ensuring rigour in expatriate case study research, examining how those criteria might be incorporated into study design, execution and subsequent writing/publication of results and professional practice. Themes relating to external, conceptual and internal validity are explored in detail. The chapter is especially focused on providing readers with insight into how to design and execute high quality case study research for actionable professional practice. Whereas extant literature tends to focus on how case study research might be used as a means of data collection, I also include a discussion of how to write up results and strategies for publication. Finally, I identify future avenues for case study research on expatriates by both scholars and practitioners.
Yvonne McNulty and Chris Brewster
In this chapter, we provide an overview of the conceptual development of business expatriates over the past 50 years. We do so in light of the rapid growth in new forms of expatriates and other types of international work, and due to an increasing proliferation of terms and sloppy application of concepts in the field of expatriate studies most especially over the last decade. Our goal is to narrow the focus to establish construct clarity and to develop a theory-specific statement about business expatriates. Our intention is three-fold: (1) to illustrate poor construct clarity by demonstrating that the word ‘expatriate’ no longer adequately describes the concept it claims to investigate in management studies; (2) to assist the field of expatriate studies to be clearer about whom it is actually researching; and, (3) to stimulate and provoke a necessary debate towards improving conceptualization of the business expatriate concept. We begin by defining expatriates more broadly and providing an overview of the categorization of international work experiences. We then critique the conceptualization of business expatriates by first discussing the problem of terminological confusion in the field of expatriate studies in general and then developing a clearer theory-specific statement about business expatriates in particular. Next, we examine business expatriates in the literature and categorize them into two streams – organization-assigned expatriates (AEs) and self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) – including in each stream their various types and forms. Critiquing the literature to determine the distinction between business expatriates and sojourners, migrants and business travellers follows this. Lastly we draw some conclusions and provide a glossary of terms for future research.
Jan Selmer, Jodie-Lee Trembath and Jakob Lauring
Expatriate academics make up a rapidly growing professional group that is driven by the emergence of an international academic labor market, international staff mobility, and growing numbers of international students. Hence, academics often relocate for job reasons. A reason for that is that they can be characterized by having a high non-organization-specific capital, which makes them particularly mobile in the international labour market. Most research of expatriates has up to now focused on business expatriates. Recently, however, a number of studies of expatriate academics have been published. Such studies are needed since there is evidence that universities are investing a great amount of resources in hiring and retaining international academic staff. It can be argued that the increasing numbers of expatriate academics could make human resource management in universities more problematic, as they present growing challenges for academic institutions since expatriate academics may in some aspects function differently from their local counterparts and also from other types of expatriates. Therefore, it is important to acquire knowledge of this under-researched professional group – not the least since this group contributes highly to the productivity of the university sector. Besides definitions of expatriate academics and their detailed descriptions, this chapter also features their work engagement, adjustment, work-related outcomes and reasons to relocate, as well as a research agenda on future research on expatriate academics.
Thomas Hippler, Arno Haslberger and Chris Brewster
This chapter argues for a reassessment of how we conceive of and study expatriate adjustment. We provide an overview of the theories and models of adjustment that have informed our thinking and offer an alternative model encompassing the dimensions, domains and dynamics of adjustment. We put a particular emphasis on the discussion of the antecedents and consequences of adjustment and the challenges we face when studying these relationships. We trace some of the inconsistencies and gaps in our body of knowledge to a lack of replications, a lack of attention to context and a lack of acknowledgement of the true complexity of these relationships. With regard to the consequences of expatriate adjustment we address the meaning of success in expatriate assignments and from whose point of view is it should be assessed and over what time scale. We raise questions about the meaning of adjustment and its contribution to such success. We argue that the research on expatriate adjustment to date has significantly enhanced our understanding with benefits for expatriates and others involved in the process, but that we may now need to reassess our current state of knowledge and adopt different research strategies if we are to extend our knowledge further and offer clearer guidelines and support.
Leanda Care and Ross Donohue
Driven by discussions with expatriates, their human resource managers and supervisors, this chapter presents the underlying argument that performance requirements of an expatriate are no different from that of other employees. We purposefully focus on the criterion space of expatriate performance; how it can be conceptualized and measured. Through this detailed journey we contend that the expatriate-specific performance components described in the literature be conceptualized as part of the overall context of the expatriate environment and in many cases are antecedent to, rather than components of, performance. We review a number of theoretical models of job performance, each of which disaggregates performance into its constituent components. We next present studies which use similar models to predict performance and thus introduce the antecedents of expatriate performance which are used in broader conceptual process models. Through our discussion of job performance models we advance the idea that the multi-faceted view of performance (the dissection of components mentioned above) is crucial to expatriate performance management so that each component can be evaluated based an organization’s own unique set of job performance requirements. We anticipate that a finer-grained understanding of the constituents of performance and what influences each will assist with resource allocation, guiding management effort and other expatriate management decisions.