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Fausto Pocar

This timely literature review analyses the most influential legal scholarship on the enforcement of human rights at institutional level, both regional and international. It includes discussion of charter-based and reporting monitoring procedures as well as the role of high commissioners and treaty bodies. The review later focuses on the movement towards establishing quasi-judicial procedures, the judicial enforcement of human rights and interim measures, concluding with a thoughtful consideration of the potential for universal judicial enforcement – a world court of human rights. This insightful study will be an essential research resource for those studying, working or teaching in this important field.
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Curtis A. Bradley

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Fausto Pocar

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Curtis A. Bradley

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3D Printing and Beyond

Intellectual Property and Regulation

Edited by Dinusha Mendis, Mark Lemley and Matthew Rimmer

This ground-breaking and timely contribution is the first and most comprehensive edited collection to address the implications for Intellectual Property (IP) law in the context of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing. Providing a coverage of IP law in three main jurisdictions including the UK, USA and Australia. 3D Printing and Beyond brings together a team of distinguished IP experts and is an indispensable starting point for researchers with an interest in IP, emerging technologies and 3D printing.
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Marc D. Mimler

The impact of 3D printing on business models that are based on protection by design rights and copyright has been widely acknowledged. Since the technology is rapidly developing, its effects may also be felt within industries that rely on patent protection. This chapter traces how the law of patent infringement in the United Kingdom applies to 3D printing scenarios. It analyses the different stages of 3D printing and whether these may lead to direct and indirect infringement. It also sheds light on how exceptions to patent infringement currently apply to 3D printing. The chapter concludes that the law of patents in the UK is currently better equipped to deal with impact of 3D printing technology than other intellectual property rights but argues for interpretive clarifications by the courts as well as possible legislative action in the near future.

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Peter S. Menell and Ryan Vacca

This chapter explores how 3D printing fits within US copyright law. US copyright law provides a well-developed framework for protecting creative designs, whether fixed in CAD files or 3D objects. Although 3D printing poses similar challenges encountered by content industries whose works were disrupted by the digital revolution, 3D printing brings distinctive issues. Although grounded in statute, US copyright law has a rich common law tradition affording courts significant leeway in adapting doctrines to new and unforeseen technological developments. This capacity is reinforced by the range of business strategies available for confronting appropriability challenges. This chapter surveys the 3D printing terrain on three levels: copyrightability of CAD files and 3D objects; enforcement challenges; and business strategies. The ultimate governance regime will depend upon business strategies that copyright owners and disruptive businesses pursue, the extent to which courts adapt doctrines to new and unforeseen challenges, and the Copyright Office’s DMCA exemptions.

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Edited by Kathleen E. Halvorsen, Chelsea Schelly, Robert M. Handler, Erin C. Pischke and Jessie L. Knowlton

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Edited by Diane Nijs