This chapter will elaborate on the uses of the Internet by urbanites for their obtaining of urban services, which were previously pursued solely in physical space (see also Kellerman 2014). In the following section, we will discuss the advantages in the obtaining of urban services via the Internet, followed by elaborations of specific urban services currently consumed, at least partially, also through the Internet.
Our discussions in the three previous chapters (4_6), on the uses of the Internet by people and companies, have assumed the use of the Internet for commu¬nications and information services by humans, for private as well as business uses. In this chapter, we move to yet another Internet-based dimension of cities, namely communications within and between urban systems, as well as communications between them and their human operators and users. These latter uses and operations by and for systems are based on the IoT technology, which we highlighted back in Chapter 3.
This opening chapter for the book will begin with an exposition of the book objectives and structure. It will then move to brief discussions of the three primal notions, which constitute the basis for this book: information, virtual spatial mobility, and connectivity.
In this chapter, we will present the historical development and the contem¬porary patterns for cities as foci for connectivity. We will further outline the roles of cities in information production, transmission, gathering and retrieval, as pursued through pertinent media. The chapter will include several sections, highlighting informational and connectivity facilities and services in cities: face-to face communications (in market places and cafés); informational insti¬tutions (libraries, universities, newspapers, and publishing houses); and elec¬tronic media invented prior to the Internet (telephone, radio and television).
In Part I of the book, we explored several traditional communications systems, which have developed in cities along the last two millennia, followed by the recently introduced and adopted digital Internet. The varied uses and applica¬tions of the Internet were outlined in Part II. In this third and last part of the book, we will attempt to outline several implications and outcomes for the extensive citywide applications of the Internet, which we explored in Part II, eventually reaching a level of saturation, once AVs are adopted. Thus, in this chapter, we will focus on the city per se as an entity that is Internet-based, as compared to our focus on rather specific uses and applications of the Internet in the city, that is, for people, companies, systems, and vehicles, as we did in the chapters of Part II.
This article discusses the protection of new plant varieties in Africa and the African Model Law through the lens of its key protagonist, Professor Johnson Ekpere. It urges African countries to consult the African Model Law as a guide when designing plant variety protection systems. It is hoped that by offering Professor Ekpere's biography, personal experiences, and first-hand account of the African Model Law, African countries may better understand the Model Law as a significant response to the small-scale-farmer- and farming-community-centred agricultural systems on the continent and embrace its continued relevance.