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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter looks at how international public–private partnership (PPP) policies are formulated by international organizations. PPPs for infrastructure projects are relevant and present in many countries around the world. The literature is full of studies of individual countries and various aspects of PPPs governance and finance. But there has been less emphasis in the literature on the way in which international organizations have been developing and promoting policies for PPPs. This chapter makes a start in describing and analyzing the way international organizations make policy for PPPs and focuses on perception around their actions. The research questions are: How do international organizations make policy for PPPs and what tools do they use? Do PPP policies from international organizations converge on the same kind of themes? The theoretical lenses employed include the Advocacy Coalition Framework and institutional change mechanisms. The empirical focus is on international organizations’ approaches to PPPs. The chapter examines policy tools from selected international organizations, including the ASEAN countries, the European Union, International Monetary Fund, OECD, UN, and the World Bank. We examine the most recent policy papers (documents and reports) and compare their content, and we show that international organizations co-operate on certain tools in PPP policy development. However, we also note that each organization likes to promote its own tools for PPP projects and developments. International organizations appear to converge on roughly the same themes on PPPs, and there seems to be overall agreement about the main messages and recommendations for the use of PPPs in infrastructure projects.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter is situated at the nexus of two literatures: theoretical ideas from political science on the relationship between politics and markets, and the more recent public policy phenomenon of public–private partnerships (PPPs). It aims first to map some of the primary theoretical underpinnings describing the enduring relationship between governments and businesses. It then focuses on the adoption of PPPs as a popular infrastructure policy, and asks to what extent a particular political-market logic for the adoption of PPP policies appears to exist in leading jurisdictions such as the UK, Australia and Canada. It suggests that the empirical evidence on the undue influence of business over political decision making is not one sided and that the arena is still hotly contested. It also suggests that the policy logic of PPPs may be dependent on the relative maturity of governance systems, the relative maturity of PPP markets, and the political and public management environments in question. A taxonomy based on Kingdon’s conceptualization of the policy window is presented. The chapter also comments on the development of the PPP phenomenon over the last three decades and highlights particular characteristics influencing the policy path.

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The Logic of Public–Private Partnerships

The Enduring Interdependency of Politics and Markets

Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This book examines Public–Private Partnerships (PPP), and tracks the movement from early technical optimism to the reality of PPP as a phenomenon in the political economy. Today's economic turbulence sees many PPP assumptions changed: what contracts can achieve, who bears the real risks, where governments get advice and who invests. As the gap between infrastructure needs and available financing widens, governments and businesses both must seek new ways to make contemporary PPP approaches work.
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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter looks at the market place for PPPs and identifies the market actors (companies, banks, consultants) that influence PPP developments. The chapter shows how transport and health care are among the dominant markets for PPPs globally. The chapter also presents recent overviews from the European PPP Expertise Centre connected to the European Investment Bank. The chapter then focuses on the roles played by governments and international organizations in establishing the institutions for market development. Finally, the chapter examines the current role of flagship political programs to develop markets for building infrastructure, and looks specifically at the European Union’s Juncker Plan, the Trump Infrastructure Plan in the US and China’s official PPP policy program.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

The performance of private finance-based infrastructure public–private partnerships remains hotly contested, despite their global popularity. This chapter explores the meaning of PPP and the notion of PPP success, and points to multiple interpretations of both. It proposes a new conceptual model of the PPP phenomenon, including five levels of meaning: project, delivery method, policy, governance tool, and cultural context. Numerous criteria exist on which the success of PPP might be judged. These are as oriented towards politics and governance as they are towards more traditional utilitarian policy goals concerned with project delivery, or value for money (VfM). Indeed, governments have dozens of different goals in mind. Given mixed international results to date for VfM, it is posited that to the extent that infrastructure PPPs continue to show popularity, governments may well be stressing PPP success more on the basis of political and governance strengths, than utilitarian characteristics.

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Graeme A. Hodge and Carsten Greve

This chapter examines the economic rationalism of public–private partnerships (PPPs) and the broad impact of PPPs on public service. PPPs are defined here as long_term infrastructure contracts, often involving private finance, where the public sector and the private sector share risks and results. The chapter traces the development of the policy idea of PPPs and the politics of PPPs. The main research questions are: How did PPPs become an influential idea in the narrative of economic rationalism? Why did PPPs emerge as a component in economic rationalism of the last twenty_five years? The chapter proceeds by first focusing on the concept of PPP. Then the chapter traces the policy and politics of PPPs through a twenty_five year period, including covering main theoretical interpretations of the politics of PPP, and contrasts the political idea with key developments in the public sector and in public_private relations. The chapter shows that the policy agenda and the politics surrounding PPPs expanded from a Western policy agenda in the 1990s to a global public policy agenda today.

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David Kaufmann

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Varieties of Capital Cities

The Competitiveness Challenge for Secondary Capitals

David Kaufmann

The political and symbolic centrality of capital cities has been challenged by increasing economic globalization. This is especially true of secondary capital cities; capital cities which, while being the seat of national political power, are not the primary economic city of their nation state. David Kaufmann examines the unique challenges that these cities face entering globalised, inter-urban competition while not possessing a competitive political economy.