China’s cultural and creative industries were, and to some extent remain, predicated on material culture, illustrated by the rollout of hundreds of cultural parks and creative clusters. The emphasis within the 13th Five-year Plan is for a digitally connected China. Associated with this is the concept of collaborative innovation. In this chapter the authors question if collaborative innovation will deliver the scale of benefits that the industrial economy has achieved. Certainly, the emphasis on collaboration, efficiency and knowledge is a different blueprint than the industrial clusters of the previous decade, most of which ended up as real estate projects. The chapter looks at so-called incubators, makerspaces and innovation hubs in Hangzhou and Shenzhen. Noting the presence there of commercial digital companies such as Alibaba and Tencent, the authors look at the potential of these spaces to generate digital disruption, and ultimately innovation.
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Michael Keane, Ying Chen and Wen Wen
Roberta Apa, Dina M. Mansour and Silvia Rita Sedita
This chapter explores if creative entrepreneurship in emerging market economies plays a relevant role in the attraction of foreign direct investments (FDI), thus generating the opportunity for economic and social growth. The chapter aims to deepen this important, but still understudied aspect of the economic growth potential of creative industries, using Egypt and the ICT sector as the empirical setting. The analysis of data using the fDi Database and Zephyr on greenfield investments and mergers and acquisitions confirm the relevance of the phenomenon. Moreover, three empirical illustrations allowed the identification of three ideal-types, represented by the three cases selected for the analysis: (1) a start-up that attracted foreign venture capital investments from Silicon Valley (the case of Wuzzuf); (2) a start-up that attracted foreign companies’ investments from Silicon Valley (the case of SysDSoft); (3) a start-up that attracted foreign and local investments from risk capital players (the case of Fawry).
Paradigms in Transition from a Global Perspective
Edited by Luciana Lazzeretti and Marilena Vecco
Pedro Costa and Ricardo Venâncio Lopes
The importance of creative activities in urban revitalisation and regeneration processes is well documented, as well as their role in territorial development, with particular attention to specific milieus or ambiances which enhance creativity and cultural liveliness, mostly in the historical or functional centres of urban areas. However, the peripheries of metropolitan areas have been quite neglected in these studies. This chapter analyses the creative dynamics visible in the peripheries of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, which face deep socio-economic restructuring. Focusing in particular on the case of the Barreiro area, which illustrates the deep transformations and the huge territorial development challenges faced by these peripheral metropolitan zones, the authors analyse some recent creative projects based on the mobilisation of local creative entrepreneurship as the source of new co-production of knowledge, highlighting the importance of the endogenous potential and path trajectory in the nurturing of sustainable long-term dynamics, from a local development point of view.
This chapter analyses the relationship between the manufacturing industry oriented towards exports and the cultural and creative industries (CCIs) across metropolitan areas (MAs) in Mexico. To study this relationship, the authors advance a simple model that explains specialisation in (high-medium) manufacturing exports as a function of a set of CCI economic indicators at the MA level. The model is implemented through quantile regressions, and they find evidence that the effects of CCIs are quite heterogeneous. The analyses reveal that CCIs contribute to manufacturing exports only in those MAs with the highest levels of specialisation, and that cultural industries have a negative effect but mainly in the MAs where the agglomeration economic forces are weak. The authors suggest that these results run along the hypothesis that in Mexico there is a dual behaviour of the emergence of CCIs, one strongly associated with trade liberalisation and the other rooted in other factors linked with internal markets, tourism and cultural heritage.
Dinorá Eliete Floriani and Mohamed Amal
Working within the international business perspective, the authors propose that Brazilian wine industry agglomeration economies have guaranteed advantages that not only sustain firms’ competitiveness in the domestic market, but also stimulate internationalisation and support their growth in the international market. In this chapter they address the cultural background of the wine industry in Vale dos Vinhedos (Brazil) and establish how external entrepreneurial network capabilities (EENC) and internationalisation shape the dynamics of the region’s wine industry. The main findings point to a process of transition from a commodity-oriented wine industry to a cultural and creative industry (CCI), which is the result of firms making a substantial commitment of entrepreneurial capability to exploit an international network that the authors call an EENC, particularly by adopting an upgrading strategy of international insertion. These firms have entered into strategic alliances to increase their creative expertise and build their system of upstream and downstream international integration.
Rafael Boix Domènech, Luciana Lazzeretti and Daniel Sánchez Serra
This work explores the relationship between the specialization in creative industries and the entrepreneurship rates and characteristics in a large sample of developing and developed countries. There is partial evidence about the positive effects of creativity on entrepreneurship in developed countries, although this relationship has hardly been studied for developing countries, and the results for both types of countries have not been compared. The current analysis is possible due to the elaboration of a new database crossing registers from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), Eurostat, World Bank, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Orbis and country reports, and includes 81 countries covering Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Oceania. Culture-based and intellectual property-based definitions of the creative industries are used in order to assess whether the effects on entrepreneurship are due to core creative competences or to the effect of the enhanced creative system. This offers a new perspective on the indirect effects of creative industries in the whole economy through entrepreneurship.
Leonardo Mazzoni and Luciana Lazzeretti
The aim of this chapter is to explore the literature on creative entrepreneurship under the lens of the creative economy approach and of local economic development. The study was carried out in two phases: first, the main definitions of creative entrepreneurship and its declinations are reviewed; second, a first bibliometric analysis is conducted on the ISI Web of Science database for the period 1998–2016, and around 300 publications are selected. Even with some limitations, the results of the research highlight how the topic has consistently grown and taken up a multidisciplinary character in recent years, although it remains a niche theme but with high potential for development. We found that the creative dimension is overwhelmingly entering the debate, beside the cultural sphere. However, the issue on the definition of creative entrepreneurship remains open.
Jaime Alberto Ruiz-Gutiérrez and Mónica Muñoz-Vela
This chapter provides a description of a top-down process by which the arts and culture sector has been strengthened and legitimised in Colombia, a Latin American middle income country. The central argument of the chapter turns around the structural changes made to the country’s institutions as the result of the promulgation of the Constitution in 1991, introducing the cultural dimension in the definition of the national identity. Historically, Colombia has been marked by significant inequalities, reflected in the existence of two or more different ‘realities’ in the society, with contrasting forms of logic and own dynamics of development. This duality shapes the development of ‘industrial’ activities within the field of arts and cultural. The chapter concludes by using statistical information to describe the evolution of these subsectors, illustrating the way in which their development has, up to now, contributed to generate more social than economic value.