The chapter analyses the complex relationships between curriculum, citizenship and nation-building since the founding of New China in 1949. It shows that the school curriculum continues to serve as a state device with two essential functions: equipping students for the country’s development and modernization, and socializing them into values and norms prescribed by the leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. The citizenship curriculum has been revised occasionally to reflect and support the changing nuances in official ideology. It concludes that this process is faced with fresh challenges, especially in in preserving and promoting cultural identity and national solidarity.
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Fengliang Li, Nianchun Wang and Xianan Hu
The chapter shows how lifelong learning in China, encompassing broader avenues and opportunities for learning, has accelerated the development of distance education and promoted the status of adult vocational education and training in Chinese society. It concludes that the exponential advance in modern communication technology plays a defining role in the rapid expansion of distance education, and has challenged and modified traditional concepts and modes of education in China.
The chapter provides an account of early childhood education. It shows that, although provision has improved because of policy and funding support from the central government, there are still significant differences in provision between urban and rural areas. It concludes that quality provision of early childhood education for all children has become an urgent policy responsibility for the government.
The chapter considers the policy and funding initiatives that the Chinese government has put in place to support and improve the access and quality of education provision for ethnic minorities in different parts of the country. It concludes that, although though there is evidence of success, there are also persistent problems rooted in the disparity of socio-economic development among different regions, as well as differing and sometimes conflicting cultural and religious values.
Yongpo Tian and Wenwen Ji
The chapter considers the relationship between education and the labour market. It provides as an example, the so-called ‘massification’ of higher education that has raised questions concerning its effects on graduates’ employability, income distribution and labour mobility, the provision of vocational education, and tensions between labour supply and demand.
The chapter explains the education system and its evolution in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong and analyses the political and societal changes and transformations in Hong Kong since it returned to Chinese sovereignty. These have determined, in fundamental ways, how the education system has responded and evolved. It concludes with an indication of the continuing political tensions that are found in education policy in Hong Kong, as in public policy generally.
Stephanie W. Lee and Tsz Kit Cheng
The chapter provides a review of educational development in Macao, from when it was under Portuguese colonial rule to the most recent introduction of regulatory regimes reinforced by the Ten Year Plan (2011_2020). It shows that over the last decade economic growth in Macao has led to substantial investment in education; a process accompanied by the SAR’s government’s efforts to consolidate the legal framework for education and to foster greater civic engagement.
Litao Lu, Li Yuan and Feng Gao
The chapter examines the development of migrant labour and its social and educational consequences. It argues that improving the living conditions and raising the educational levels of migrant workers and their children is now a pressing social responsibility for both government and society, because of the implications for the economic and social stability of the country.
Yanbi Hong and Yandong Zhao
The chapter provides a critical account of the constantly evolving concept of ‘educational inequality’, together with its impact on the provision and outcomes of education. It concludes that educational policies and measures alone cannot eliminate educational inequality, and calls for greater attention to be paid to equality of social resources generally.
Qing Tian, Yu Huang, Gerald A. McBeath and Jenifer Huang McBeath
The chapter provides an account of the development of environmental education in schools and in higher education. Environmental degradation is now a matter for concern in China, especially given the country’s rapid economic growth. The chapter argues that environmental education has benefited from the traditional Chinese concept of social learning or tianren heyi, which regards humanity as an integral part of nature. It concludes that sustainable development should continue to see greater government investment in environmental education and co-operation with non-governmental organizations.