This chapter analyses the role of the creation and transfer of technology in the pharmaceutical industry and its role for regional competitiveness. Our case study focuses on the firms located in Oeiras, particularly the bio-pharmaceutical cluster, which gathers some of the most representative firms in terms of investment in R & D in Portugal. Therefore, this study focuses on the role of two of the factors that have influenced regional competitiveness in Portugal: clusters and knowledge/technology transfer.
Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory
This introductory chapter to the book reviews global trends in markets, focusing on globalisation and digitalisation. It is argued that the global economy seems to have entered a new phase after the financial crisis, whereby flows of goods no longer exponentially rise while data flows boom. This new phase can therefore be called ‘digital globalisation’, spurred by the fourth industrial revolution, the meaning and implications this book aims at analysing, especially regarding industry and industrial policy.
Benjamin Jara and Alessandra Faggian
This chapter studies labor market resilience after a disaster, and proposes an empirical application to understand specific aspects of it. Different types of re-orientation are defined and estimated using data of workers in the regions affected by an earthquake. Results indicate that the probability of employment was the most significant impact of the disaster, while industry switching and wage growth are neither affected by the earthquake nor by place-specific characteristics. Positive and negative convergence effects are observed in the poorest and richest regions, respectively. We also observe heterogeneity among industries, although these effects are not essentially different to the pre-disaster years.
Roger R. Stough
A series of cluster and regional dynamics studies provide growing evidence that supports a hypothesis that industrial clusters evolve somewhat regularly through a series of stages. This stage or cycle theory views clusters as proceeding from initiation to some asymptotic limit with subsequent decline and/or rejuvenation, that is, resiliency. This chapter examines, on the basis of several case studies, the process or lack of a process that lagging or declining clusters use to reinvent themselves or fail. Examination of the case studies reveals five general types of histories that clusters and their regions, and their urban contexts appear to experience. From this research a typology of cluster dynamics (resiliency types) is proposed. Clusters in this chapter are defined as having a geographic locus as well as an extra local network component and are viewed from a systems perspective.
Magdolna Benke, Klára Czimre, Katalin R. Forray, Tamás Kozma, Sándor Márton and Károly Teperics
Our study reconsiders the results of the LeaRn (Learning Regions in Hungary: From Theory to Reality) research project, focusing on the potential contribution of learning regions to regional resilience. After drawing attention to some key points of the theoretical background of learning regions and resilience, we present the results of the statistical examination of the spatial centres of learning and identify the potential learning regions in Hungary. Finally, we explain the main findings of case studies which indicated (if not proved) the connection between successful community learning and socio-economic resiliency. The complex indicator and map of learning regions convey important messages about the conditions and potentials of the evolution of learning regions, learning cities and learning communities in Hungary including the area of regional resilience. Our hypothesis, therefore, is that learning regions in Hungary have the potential for becoming resilient regions as a consequence of the geographic, cultural and social proximity. The study offers evidence to confirm the role of the LeaRn Index set up for the Hungarian learning patterns in this process. Comparing the learning patterns of the Hungarian settlements with socio-economic indicators allows us to conclude that those regions which are more open to learning have better economic indicators and well-being indexes.
Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory
Chapter 4 goes deeper in the analysis of the effects of digitalisation and hyperconnection, by focusing on the new market intermediaries, online platforms. Their boom in recent years is analysed, as well as their disrupting effects on certain industries. The economic analysis of platforms is reviewed. In terms of impact on industry and policy implications, the new issues raised in terms of privacy and especially market power are outlined, claiming that further reflection is needed to avoid monopolisation.
Lasse Gerrits and Stefan Verweij
We argue that infrastructure projects are complex and that evaluations of such projects need to do justice to that complexity. The three principal aspects discussed here are heterogeneity, uniqueness, and context. Evaluations that are serious about incorporating the complexity of projects need to address these aspects. Often, evaluations rely on single case studies. Such studies are useful because they allow researchers to focus on the heterogeneous, unique, and contextual nature of projects. However, their relevance for explaining other (future) projects is limited. Larger-n studies allow for the comparison of cases, but they come with the important downside that their relevance for explaining single projects is limited because they cannot incorporate heterogeneity, uniqueness, and context sufficiently. The method Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) presents a promising solution to this conundrum. This book offers a guide to using QCA when evaluating infrastructure projects.