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H.M. Shivanand Swamy, Bhargav Adhvaryu and Shalini Sinha

Bus rapid transit (BRT) is increasingly seen as a sustainable rapid transport solution for cities across the globe. While several BRT projects have started in Asia, its success appears to be limited due to complexities in planning, design and implementation. The Ahmedabad BRT has become a desirable model for several BRT-aspirant cities in India. Its uniqueness has two key dimensions – speedy implementation (taking just three years from conception to implementation) and acceptance by the citizens. This chapter aims to emphasize the applicability of BRT in the Indian context, using perhaps the most popular case in India of Ahmedabad. We start with the introduction of BRT in India and the evolution of BRT in Ahmedabad – the initial idea in 1995 and its revival in 2005. This is followed by BRT design and implementation and then key operational statistics (until December 2016) and integration with the upcoming metrorail system. The impacts of BRT on accessibility and urban development are then presented. We conclude with first presenting the critiques followed by merits and learning for other cities. Mega projects like the BRT are always a learning curve for designers, planners and urban local authorities and therefore this case study is likely to be useful for other cities in the process of developing BRT. They can use the ‘latecomers’ advantage to address the shortcoming and enhance the successful components of Ahmedabad BRT.

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Ebru Seçkin

Tourism is one of the most economically important industries in Turkey. Istanbul is the most attractive tourist destination in Turkey with historical and cultural heritage and natural beauty. However, stressors and shocks such as political turmoil and economic crises threaten its sustainability. Knowing the risks can lead to the development of strategies for reducing vulnerability and building resilience. This chapter assesses Istanbul’s vulnerability and resilience and presents strategies for building a more resilient tourism industry in Istanbul. The current situation was analysed using SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis facilitates decision-making by determining the internal capabilities and limits (strengths and weaknesses) and external conditions (opportunities and threats) in a given context. SWOT factors were weighted using the analytical_hierarchy process (AHP) method. As a result, six strategies for Istanbul were determined using the TOWS method.

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Rosa Maria Ballardini, Kan He and Teemu Roos

Predicting the future of technology is notoriously difficult. Indeed, predicting how law and regulation should be shaped to meet the needs of future technological developments is a task that might often lead to hilarious predictions. The difficulty in predicting technological development is certainly reflected in the current debate about the future of artificial intelligence (AI).

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Giuseppe Mazziotti

In the context of its Digital Single Market strategy, the removal of territorial barriers in content distribution has become a priority for the European Union. Smooth access to high-quality and customized content offerings is regarded as a pre-condition for the development of well-functioning markets for creative works and the re-affirmation of the function of intellectual property in the online environment. Access to copyright works on a multi-territorial basis in Europe would entail both regulatory changes and economic incentives to be given to content creators and suppliers of online services who still find it more convenient to partition markets along national borders.

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Claudia R. Binder, Susan Mühlemeier and Romano Wyss

The transitions occurring in our society, for example, our current energy transition from a fossil-based system to a system based on renewables, are complex and long-term societal transitions, involving not only the technical but also the social and the ecological spheres of the system. The need for a fundamental system transformation raises the question of how to measure the continuing progress and the resilience of this process over time. We present a conceptualization of the resilience of a socio-technical system in transition. Based on the resilience concept in the social-ecological systems literature, we propose to conceptualize resilience for energy systems building on two core system attributes, namely, diversity and connectivity. The analysis of the system based on these key attributes allows for conclusions about the system’s abilities (for example, stability, flexibility or adaptive capacity), which are essential for resilience during a transition. We present an indicator set to operationalize these key attributes in social and technical subsystems using (1) definitions and measurements for three fundamental diversity properties – variety, balance and disparity – and (2) basic connectivity properties from the social network analysis literature – path length, centrality and modularity. Subsequently, we show how this indicator set can be measured, and apply it to regional energy transitions. Finally, we discuss the added value of the approach for sustainability transition research.

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G. M.P. Swann

At the end of Chapter 12, I emphasised that the federation would contain all the existing areas of mainstream economics, including theory and econometrics. But my main objective in Part III has been to focus on the most important new sub-disciplines that we need in the federation. In principle, there could be many others. After all, there are over a hundred subdisciplines in the medical federation, most with a high degree of autonomy, even if it is fanciful to imagine an equivalent number in economics.

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G. M.P. Swann

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María Milanés-Murcia

Most international shared aquifers lack agreements, policies and institutional arrangement necessary to effectively and efficiently manage groundwater. A current example is the U.S.-Mexico border region, which reflects the general trend of minimum regulation on transboundary groundwater in international law. The international instrument regulating the management of transboundary aquifers in conjunctive use with surface water is the 1997 Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, which reflects the principles of international water law. Regarding fossil aquifers, the International Law Commission (ILC) Resolution on confined transboundary groundwater 1994 recognized that confined aquifers, ‘groundwater not related to an international watercourse’, need specific rules. The 1992 ECE Water Convention could cover fossil aquifers, as long as they are intersected by a border. In 2008, the ILC adopted the Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. It provides helpful guidance concerning the management of this precious resource.

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François-Xavier Licari, Sandrine Brachotte and Nathalie Najjar

Are arbitrators employees for the purpose of the Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations, 2003? This is an unlikely question to open a debate about the role of religious norms in the global sphere! Yet it arose in the context of an international commercial contract with a religious arbitration clause, triggering controversy not only within the arbitration community (which feared the potential fiscal and other consequences of a legal characterisation of arbitration as employment) but also far beyond. In a world where religious norms are gaining (or regaining) increasing prominence, how exactly do our multiple belief systems fit with global economic governance by contract? The case arises from a joint venture agreement between Mr. Jivraj and Mr. Hashwani, that contained the controversial arbitration clause. It provided that any dispute between the parties should be resolved by arbitration before three arbitrators, all of whom should be ‘respected members of the Ismaili community’ (a religious community comprised of Shia Ismaili Muslims). The parties terminated their joint venture agreement in 1988 (seven years after its inception) and appointed three Ismaili arbitrators to assist them in dividing the joint venture assets. However, as the panel was unable to resolve all the issues between the parties, they remained in dispute for some years. In 2008, Mr. Hashwani initiated another arbitration and appointed Sir Anthony Colman as an arbitrator, despite the fact that he was not a member of the Ismaili community.

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Nadezhda Zamyatina and Ruslan Goncharov

Arctic cities are a singular phenomenon. The group of cities of the Russian Arctic is particularly distinguishable, characterized by relatively large populations and close connections with the extraction of natural resources. In addition to practical motivations, ideology played an important role in their emergence. Migration to, from and between Russian Arctic cities has been promoted as a key socio-economic element for ensuring their viability. Their migration specificity lies in the fact that a stable population is usually the result of a dynamic balance between large flows of incoming and outgoing migration. The large incoming migratory flows, even if the population is kept constant, have serious and multifarious consequences. On the one hand, they introduce problems of migrant adaptation; on the other, new knowledge is introduced to these industrial cities, promoting urban resilience and creativity.