Previous research shows that organisations and employees usually perform green practices and activities superficially. Those behaviours are decoupled from the true benefits on the environment and very often are symbolic in nature. Symbolic pro-environmental activities are suggested as the representations of pro-environmental behaviours in symbolic form or the symbolic meanings attributed to eco-friendly objects and actions. This chapter aims to establish an integrated multi-level framework with three dimensions: appropriateness, competitiveness and status, to explain drivers of symbolic pro-environmental behaviours at organisational and employee levels. Specifically, the competitiveness dimension includes two aspects: gain resources and differentiation.
Lei Yang, Danae Manika and Frances Bowen
Deniz S. Ones, Brenton M. Wiernik, Stephan Dilchert and Rachael M. Klein
We describe a taxonomy of diverse types of workplace behaviours that contribute to, or detract from, environmental sustainability goals in organisational settings. The Green Five taxonomy was developed using critical incidents methodology and includes five major content-based meta-categories of employee green behaviours (EGBs): Transforming, Avoiding Harm, Conserving, Influencing Others, and Taking Initiative. We discuss the behavioural and psychological meanings of these meta-categories, as well as their sub-categories. We also highlight key features of the Green Five taxonomy (e.g., it is content-based, it incorporates both positive and negative behaviours, it integrates with general models of job performance). Finally, we review existing measures of employee green behaviours in terms of their coverage of the employee green behaviour construct domain, and identify future directions for research and applications.
Paul C. Endrejat and Simone Kauffeld
This chapter argues that participatory interventions (PIs) are effective means for increasing employees’ pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). We rely on the Self-Determination Theory to accentuate that the fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs – autonomy, competence, and relatedness – is necessary before expecting employees to behave with volitional PEB. To provide guidelines of how PIs can be conducted within organisations, we illustrate a prototypical workshop process (detection, decision, implementation) to ensure PEB’s integration into work routines. Furthermore, we highlight the essential elements of a PI, such as (1) change agents’ sufficient facilitation skills of establishing an autonomy-supportive atmosphere, (2) the analysis of the perceived (dis-)advantages associated with PEB, and (3) documentation of agreed measures to establish PEB fostering norms. Finally, we discuss process evaluation and a stronger focus on employees’ characteristics as avenues for further research, and derive implications of how practitioners can enhance PEB by using PIs.
John Callewaert and Robert W. Marans
The Sustainability Cultural Indicators Programme (SCIP) is a multi-year project designed to measure and track the culture of sustainability on the University of Michigan’s (U-M) Ann Arbor campus. To date, more than 20,000 U-M students and employees have completed SCIP questionnaires over the past four years. Fifteen key cultural sustainability indicators were developed to measure and track change over time for a range of campus sustainability topics. U-M offers two unique employee programmes to support the development of a culture of sustainability – the Planet Blue Ambassadors programme and the Sustainable Workplace Certification Programme. An overview of these programmes is offered along with an analysis of how SCIP results for programme participants compare to the general campus population. The chapter concludes with a summary of future plans for SCIP, opportunities for collaboration and a set of recommendations for practitioners.
Bilal Afsar, Asad Shahjehan and Imad Shah
Organisational leaders can motivate followers to engage in pro-environmental behaviours. Although employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are critical to the success of organisational environmental initiatives, there is little understanding of the leadership mechanisms that foster these behaviours. As pro-environmental behaviour is a voluntary behaviour, not every leadership style is likely to be equally effective. This chapter explains important leadership styles that can affect employee’s pro-environmental behaviours. Specifically, the effects of transformational, transactional, environmental, environmental transformational, green entrepreneurial and spiritual leadership on employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are presented. We will also discuss which leaders’ behaviours are critical to motivate an employee to engage in pro-environmental behaviour. This chapter contributes to the literature on, and practice of, the subject by examining various leadership styles, which has hardly been studied, and unveils unique circumstances for decision-making.
Victoria K. Wells, Diana Gregory-Smith and Danae Manika
Brenton M. Wiernik, Deniz S. Ones, Stephan Dilchert and Rachael M. Klein
This chapter reviews research on the individual antecedents of pro-environmental behaviours and discusses implications of these antecedents for understanding, predicting, and managing employee green behaviours. We review meta-analytic findings on the contributions of environmental awareness/knowledge, environmental attitudes, stable individual differences, demographic characteristics, and interventions on individual pro-environmental behaviour. We also review recent primary studies examining the impact of these antecedents on employee green behaviours in the workplace. Throughout the chapter, we consider the implications of research findings for improving employee environmental performance using human resource management.
Evolution and Change
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Cristina E. Ciocirlan
This chapter aims to review recent literature on green human resources management (GHRM), outline directions for future research, and discuss implications for practitioners. In particular, the functional activities of green recruiting and selection, green orientation and onboarding, green training and development, green leadership and culture, employee involvement and participation in sustainability, green performance evaluation, green compensation, and green talent management are reviewed. These functional green HR activities are the most developed in the extant literature; they also hold the most promise for the future of GHRM as a discipline (Renwick et al. 2016). To enhance environmental performance, practitioners should perform these activities in an integrated, coherent fashion. They should also make a business case for sustainability by demonstrating the strategic role of GHRM in organisations. Research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and uses cross-cultural samples, qualitative and mixed research methods, and longitudinal time series, is needed to advance the field.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
We have seen that, however performance assessment is conducted, the element of feedback is critical to its successful outcome. So, once the chosen performance appraisal system (PAS) has been completed, it is time to discuss with the evaluated employee the outcome of his or her appraisal. The employee and direct supervisor usually sit face to face to discuss all the aspects of the employee’s performance and work out differences they may have regarding the perception and significance of the appraisal. The performance appraisal interview provides the employee with a chance to reflect upon the evaluation and, especially if the result is poor, to explain or defend the result. Conversely, the supervisor has an opportunity to discuss the outcome with the employee. Clearly, the context within which, and the way the feedback interview, is conducted impinge on the success of the overall appraisal process. This chapter discusses these issues.