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Soyoon Choo and Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

This chapter will focus on the more contemporary cultural globalization (2000s and onwards), where there is ‘no historical equivalent’ of the global reach and volume of cultural traffic and the globalization of both cultural and media geographies reinforce the existence of each other at an ever-intimate level. In particular, it will look into the concept of globalization in these two geographic subfields in terms of the social aspects of cultural production, consumption, dissemination, and value creation. By going over the historical trajectories leading up to the twenty-first century cultural globalization and its spatiotemporal and organizational characteristics, it examines the symbiotic relationship between culture, media, and established/emerging ‘global cities’ through selected case studies. Their ever-more dynamic interactions play a crucial role in the ‘imaging’ and ‘imagining’ of place and what it means to be a ‘community’.

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Edited by Robert C. Kloosterman, Virginie Mamadouh and Pieter Terhorst

Processes of globalization have changed the world in many, often fundamental, ways. Increasingly these processes are being debated and contested. This Handbook offers a timely, rich as well as critical panorama of these multifaceted processes with up-to-date chapters by renowned specialists from many countries. It comprises chapters on the historical background of globalization, different geographical perspectives (including world systems analysis and geopolitics), the geographies of flows (of people, goods and services, and capital), and the geographies of places (including global cities, clusters, port cities and the impact of climate change).
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Robert C. Kloosterman, Virginie Mamadouh and Pieter Terhorst

This chapter starts with a brief history of the concept ‘globalization’. It highlights the rather surprising rapid emergence of the concept in the 1990s when it acquired a very prominent status in both academic and public debates. After that, some of the many meanings of globalization are explored. More in particular, the focus is on the plurality of geographical expressions as well as of current geographical approaches to the manifold processes of globalization. The chapter argues that the spatial dimension – in marked contrast to the temporal dimension – has long been neglected in social sciences in general. Current processes of globalization require an a priori acknowledgment of the fundamental role of space as these processes may be articulated in very different ways in different places. Geographical approaches, characterized by a sensitivity to space, place and spatial scales, are highly relevant to understand processes of globalization.

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Dennis Arnold

The aim of the chapter is to unpack trends around precarization of labour, while highlighting increasing disparities in power and wealth in the global economy. It does so through three analytical lenses: the ‘bordering’ of precarious and migrant labour, labour geography, and labour regimes. The three varyingly utilize geographical tools including space, place and scale, however, rather than restrict analysis to intra-Geography literature the chapter instead briefly investigates these three approaches from a wider disciplinary optic. The study of borders and states’ efforts to manage mobile capital and labour emphasizes the mutable and multiple spaces that migrants traverse, offering opportunities and constraints for socio-economic entitlements. Studies on labour geography and labour regimes offer accounts of both mechanisms of labour control at the workplace and how workers co-determine the labour process and wider regimes of accumulation. At stake is developing better understanding of how labour regimes reproduce excessive share of profits to capital at labour’s expense, how and why workers acquiesce to their own exploitation, and the cracks and fissures that emerge in labour regimes over time – highlighting both workers’ success stories as well as failures, as part of wider efforts to mitigate inequalities inherent in contemporary capitalism.

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Takashi Yamazaki

This chapter explores the historical relationship between globalization, maritime trade and geopolitics. As maritime trade has developed globally through the expansion of capitalism (and colonialism) from Western Europe, its importance for the state economy has prompted foreign and security policies that ensures the security of sea lanes to sustain international trade. Focuses are placed on the case of Japan which recognizes the Indian Ocean as its ‘vital’ sea lane or sea line of communication for the state economy. The textual analysis of annual white report titled Defense of Japan (Bouei-hakusho ____) reveals how geopolitical codes regarding the Indian Ocean have remained unchanged and have repeatedly been employed to justify Japan’s postwar maritime geopolitics with – and against – neighboring states. It also becomes clear from the analysis that behind Japan’s geopolitical self-image, there has been an increasing fear of being disconnected to the external world to which Japan feels increasingly connected. Just as deterministic classical geopolitics, so Japan’s maritime geopolitics has been founded on the imagination of an inescapable geographical destiny.

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Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Shirlena Huang and Theodora Lam

This chapter examines the conceptual tools that have gained traction in understanding the links between globalization, transnational migration, families and households in the context of Asia, particularly East and Southeast Asia. We discuss two complementary approaches in particular, namely, ‘transnational families’ and ‘global householding’, and argue for recognizing the ‘family’ and ‘household’ as important sites and scales of analysis to think about globalization as an integral aspect of the social sphere, and as a route to understanding the inner workings of ‘intimate globalization’. The chapter goes on to develop two themes of particular relevance to Asia: first, how the feminization of migration has impacted the gender politics of social reproduction in families and households in source communities, especially in terms of gender identities, relations and subjectivities; and second, how care-driven migration is transforming the provision of intergenerational care along gender, class and other dimensions in both source and receiving societies in Asia. A brief conclusion highlights the need to place families and households on the research agenda in globalizing Asia.

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Valentina Mazzucato and Lauren Wagner

Studying globalization requires a global perspective. Methodologically, this means that investigating phenomena that occur in and influence multiple places, or investigating how phenomena occurring across multiple places are connected to each other. Multi-sited fieldwork is one way to approach this practical problem. It involves designing research which incorporates different places and times into a single researchable question. In this chapter, we present some theoretical considerations and practical possibilities for executing multi-sited research. To do so, we first discuss how globalization can be conceived of through simultaneity and complexity, how phenomena are often taking place in multiple locations through simultaneous interconnection and with complex causes and effects. An important part of globalization research through multi-sited designs is investigating the connections and disconnections of simultaneous and complex activities and events. We also discuss what multi-sited research is, and what it is not; in other words, how some research designs may incorporate multiple locations, yet not effectively be multi-sited studies of interconnectivity. Finally, we give some examples of how multi-sited research can be accomplished. Our examples are taken from our own research, as well as research executed by anthropologists, sociologists and geographers over many different topics in globalization: migration, transnationalism and diaspora; high-level and low-level cross-border economic activity; and elite mobilities on a global scale. While many of these topics can be studied through a single site, each of these, and topics beyond them, has the potential to be studied using multi-sited fieldwork. Drawing on these examples, we give some guidelines and advice on how to prepare and execute a research design that brings new insights to a problem by incorporating multiple sites.

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Robert C. Kloosterman and Rosa Koetsenruijter

Fashion design from Nigeria, films and contemporary art from China and TV series from Brazil, Mexico, South Korea and India; emerging economies are now home to globally competitive cultural industries. Although Western countries, and the US in particular, are still very important in the production and consumption of these industries there is no doubt that a fundamental shift regarding the geography is occurring. Former peripheral countries are now challenging those in what used to be the core in the global division of labour by selling all kinds of commodified culture across borders on a large scale. In this chapter, we offer a brief overview of processes of globalization of cultural industries after 1945, an overview which is sketchy and anything but exhaustive due to the limited space and the relative dearth of suitable and rigorous data on the cultural industries on a more global scale. The chapter starts with setting out the defining characteristics of products of cultural industries – their symbolic, aesthetic and experiential qualities – and how that influences their ability to cross borders. Thereafter, we provide an overview of the (geographical) patterns and dynamics of the globalization of cultural industries. We, then, present two brief case studies of cultural industries – respectively the film industry and architectural design – to illustrate the variegated patterns of globalization. The chapter concludes with a reflection on the wider implications of research on the cultural industries.

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Sami Moisio, Juho Luukkonen and Andrew E.G. Jonas

This chapter elaborates upon political geographies of globalization. By this we refer to the different political discourses and related imaginaries, policy practices and regimes of governance through which globalization can be understood as being constantly produced in and through political geographical formations. We comprehend globalization both as an actually existing process which links places – cities, regions, etc., institutions (especially the state) and people (notably workers) – and creates interdependencies between them, and as a politically loaded rhetorical device used to rationalize and legitimate political decisions and policy practices. We single out three interlinked and partly overlapping issues through which the political geographies of globalization can be mapped out: the spatial formations of globalization and the state, the ‘globalizing’ role and ‘globalized’ nature of public policy, and the globalizing regimes and policies of labour.

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Markus Hesse and Evan McDonough

This chapter further develops the idea of maritime globalizations, and the role of actors such as national governments and local decision makers in strategically and successfully positioning their deep-sea and inland ports as connectors between sea, land and air, and within global shipping networks. Approaching these maritime networks from a relational perspective, we understand cities and regions as co-constituted by the global flows. In this context, the expansion of globally connected ports and logistics areas such as Rotterdam and Venlo, and local developments at the urban-regional level that cope with this demand, can be understood as the materalization of these globalization processes. From a supply-side perspective, we situate these global flows and their local interface within the unique trajectory of technological and regulatory change, and the global restructuring and redistribution of manufacturing platforms made possible by the dominance of the standard shipping container. The case study of Rotterdam, a product of the city’s unique history and the Netherlands’ 'mainport' strategy, illustrates the spatio-temporal dimensions of these global maritime spaces and flows, as does the example of case of Venlo, an inland port and freight distribution area that has recently capitalized on the city's location along corridors of shipping flows into the European hinterland. The chapter concludes with some remarks on possible changes to maritime globalizations that may occur in the near future, and briefly discusses the related consequences for further research.